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Dates, Definitions


historical accuracy of biblical stories


The Day of the Lord


any story that tries to explain how things are the way they are now


belief in the existence of a single divine being


recognition of the existence of many gods but only worshiping one; one altar


communication with the divine; any method used to obtain info from the divine


"holy war"; fear of the Lord; an appearance or manifestation of God to humans


qedosh; clean, pure; priest, Israelites, ark of the covenant

Mercy seat

cover of the ark; rested on the ark of the covenant


Ten commendments found in Deuteronomy 5 and Exodus 20; given to Moses by God

Hierarchical polytheism

Other gods exist and one may worship them but acknowledge Yahweh as the greatest of those gods and worship him the most

Debt slavery

If a borrower could not pay the loan back to the loaner, the borrower becomes a slave to the loaner for 6 years and is freed by the 7th.

Sin offering

sacrificial animal is a sub for an offender; blood was sprinkled, fat burned, and rest of carcass was discarded or burned outside sanctuary (Lev 4)
purpose: to remove offender's guilt

Sabbatical year

seventh year; at the start, any debt between Israelites is to be cancelled


Numbers 6; A solemn promise before God to perform some act or make a gift or sacrifice; a solemn engagement to devote oneself to religious life


God is present in the physical world and accessible to creatures in many ways


divine; existence outside created world; superior to mortals. (God's nature and power is independent of physical universe)


10th BCE

Babylonian exile

587-538 BCE


cleanse of impurity; give back to the Lord


a spoken/written message from a divine being telling about future events


method use to communicate with the spirits/dead; give offering to the spirits and they would tell them info

Ritual purity/impurity

blood of the sin offering destroys the impurity immediately; blood is life


anointed one

Casting lots

throwing objects to determine outcomes

Oracular divination

getting info in immediate useful form (listening/reading)

DH 1

ca. 11th-621 BCE - Josiah; Dt Joshua, Judges, 1 + 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings 1-23

DH 2

ca. 609-560 BCE; Dt Joshua, Judges, 1 + 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings 24-25


ca. 750 BCE

Tiglath-Pileser III

745-727 BCE

Destruction of Israel

721 BCE


a poetic description of one's negative circumstances


ca. 742-701 BCE

Syro-Ephraimite War

ca. 734-732 BCE


627-587 BCE


location of temple in Jerusalem

Zion tradition

belief that Yahweh's presence in the temple protects the city


ca. 592-571 BCE


The time when the faithful people who have died will come back to eternal life; spirit reinserted in body; Ezekial 37

Persian Period

538-332 BCE


a person of wisdom; believes that Yahweh is at the center of everything


loyalty to Yahweh; the ability to know with the heart and see things with the eyes of faith, to see ourselves as God wants us to be and to act as God wants us to act


realize that Yahweh is at the center of everything but rejects it and doesn't live by it; disloyalty

Documentary hypothesis

J - Yahwist (Jahwist), E - Elohist, P - Priestly, D - Deuteronomist; Biblical theory to explain repetition in the Torah


Refering to traditions that do not encourage visual imagery in religion.


a type of writing; heavenly visions + interpreter; day of the Lord is immanent; provides hope for the oppresseda

Book of Daniel

ca. 164


a member of the highest order of angels in the celestial hierarchies

Roman empire takes over Palestine

63 CE

Herad dies


Birth of Jesus

6-4 BCE

Crucifixion of Jesus

30 CE

Letters of Paul

ca. 49-64 CE

Mark Gospel

65-75 CE

Matthew Gospel

75-85 CE

Luke Gospel

85-95 CE

Day of the Lord

Yahweh doesn't show up; Jesus shows up as an agent of God


Jewish sect that emphasized strict interpretation and observance of the Torah in both its oral and written form; believed in resurrection


kurios; ruler/master; someone with authority/power/control

Destruction of Jerusalem

70 CE


a prediction of the future, made under divine inspiration


To predict or foretell, especially under divine inspiration and guidance.

Source criticism

literary detective work that helps discover where the biblical authors got their material


survival on the Day of the Lord

Son of Man

Daniel 7; heavenly being given the powers of God to complete His task on the Day of the Lord

Son of God

royal title= anointed/messiah; 2 Samuel 7; Jesus becomes this after resurrected from the dead

Son of David



spiritual cleansing of sins


Oral teachings about Jesus and his death

Herod the Great

37-4 BCE


the fallen angel or spirit of evil who is the enemy of God and a continuing instigator of temptation and sin in the world


A simple story illustrating a moral or religious lesson; used by Jesus


a follower of Jesus


one of the followers of Jesus who preached and spread his teachings


the written body of teachings of a religious group that are generally accepted by that group

Holy Spirit

The presence of God active in human life. The Hebrew Bible describes it as the force that created the universe. In post-New Testament times, the it was declared to be the third person in the Trinity.


believed to be the Son of Man; Daniel 7


the suffering of Jesus at the crucifixion

John the Baptist

baptized Jesus; thought to be Elijah by some; Jesus' cousin in some gospels

Call narrative

a story that describes a person's initial awareness that God wanted him or her to do something specific. The calls of the prophet have five common elements: there is something mysterious and holy about the encounter, God acts first, the prophet resists, God reassures, and God sends the prophet on his or her mission


one of the twelve charismatic military leaders of the israelites during the period between the conquest of Canaan and the establishment of the monarchy who was animated by the spirit of God


eternal life

Lady Wisdom

female character of God's wisdom and we see it in proverbs


rubbed with oil; chosen by God


the act of purging of sin or guilt

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