Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
honors bio ch 8 vocab
Terms in this set (55)
the fourth stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes arrives at each of the two poles of the cell.
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface.
the creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent, without the production of sperm and egg.
a chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism; in mammals, for example, any chromosome other than X or Y.
an abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body.
a means of asexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two genetically identical individuals of about equal size.
a disease characterized by the presence of malignant tumors (rapidly growing and spreading masses of abnormal body cells) in the body.
an ordered sequence of events (including interphase and the mitotic phase) that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells.
Cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and coordinates events in the eukaryotic cell cycle.
the reproduction of a cell through duplication of the genome and division of the cytoplasm.
a double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
the region of a duplicated chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined (often appearing as a narrow waist and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis. The _______ divides at the onset of anaphase during mitosis and anaphase II during meiosis.
a structure found in animal cells from which microtubules originate and that is important during cell division. A__________ has two Centrioles.
Chiasma (plural, chiasmata)
the microscopically visible site where crossing over has occurred between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
the complex of DNA and proteins that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by chromosomes when a cell is not dividing.
a gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis; also, the main gene carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell. A ________ consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
the first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
the exchange of segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis; also, the exchange of segments between DNA molecules in prokaryotes.
the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells. _________ usually occurs in conjunction with telophase of mitosis. Mitosis and_______ make up the M phase of the cell cycle
the loss of one or more nucleotides from a gene by mutation; the loss of a fragment of a chromosome.
Density dependent inhibition
the ceasing of cell division that occurs when cells touch one another.
in an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one set inherited form each parent; a 2n cell.
Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)
a human genetic disorder resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by heart and respiratory defects and varying degrees of mental retardation.
repetition of part of a chromosome resulting from fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome; can result from an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
the union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell, producing a zygote
a sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm.
the production, by crossing over and/or independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis, of offspring with allele combinations different from those in the parents. The term may also be used more specifically to mean the production by crossing over of eukaryotic or prokaryotic chromosome with gene combinations different from those in the original chromosomes.
a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide.
in the life cycle of an organism that reproduces sexually, a cell containing a single set of chromosomes; an n cell.
the two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell. _______ _________ are of the same length, centromere position, a staining pattern and possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One ______ _______ is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
the period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing. ______ constitutes the majority of the time spent in the cell cycle.
a change in a chromosome resulting from reattachment of a chromosome fragment to the original chromosome, but in the reverse direction. Mutagens and errors during meiosis can cause inversions.
a display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position...can be used to identify certain chromosomal abnormalities.
the entire sequence of stages in the life of an organism, from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next.
Locus (plural, loci)
The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. Homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene ____ (plural).
an abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor.
in a sexually reproducing organism, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei. ______ and cytokinesis produce haploid gametes from diploid cells in the reproductive organs of the parents.
the third stage of mitosis, during which all the cell's duplicated chromosomes are lined up at an imaginary plane equidistant between the poles of the mitotic spindle
the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.
the division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei. _______ and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle.
Mitotic phase (M phase)
the part of the cell cycle when the nucleus divides (via mitosis), its chromosomes are distributed to the daughter nuclei, and the cytoplasm divides (via cytokinesis), producing two daughter cells.
a football shaped structure formed of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
an accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate at anaphase
the second stage of mitosis, during which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the sister chromatids.
the first stage of mitosis, during which the chromatin condenses to form structures (sister chromatids) visible with a light microscope and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleus is still intact.
a chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female.
the creation of genetically unique offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells (gametes), forming a diploid zygote.
one of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell. Prior to mitosis, _____ _____ remain attached to each other at the centromere.
any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or a cell that develops into a sperm or egg.
early in prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes, composed of two sister chromatids, come together as pairs, in a process called _____. The new structure, consisting of four chromatids aligned gene by gene, is called a tetrad.
the fifth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell. ____ usually occurs together with cytokinesis.
a change in a chromosome resulting from a chromosomal fragment attaching to a non homologous chromosome; can occur as a result of an error in meiosis or from mutagenesis.
a human genetic disorder resulting from the presence of an extra chromosome 21; See Down syndrome.
an abnormal mass of rapidly growing cells that forms within otherwise normal tissue.
the diploid fertilized egg, which results from the union of a sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus.
Recommended textbook explanations
Nelson Science Perspectives 10
Christy C. Hayhoe, Doug Hayhoe, Jeff Major, Maurice DiGiuseppe
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Biology Study Workbook A
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Sets with similar terms
ch 8.1-8.20 vocab
Campbell Biology Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Chapter 8 Biology Vocab Terms
Bio chapter 8 vocab
Other sets by this creator
FDNS exam 2
MIBOL practical 1
FDNS 3600 exam 1
CBIO test 1
Other Quizlet sets
POL 536 Quizzes
Histology 1: Module 15: Automated Tissue processors
Arch 341 Exam 2 Review
Unlike retrotransposons, DNA transposons a. have terminal inverted repeats. b. generate a target-site duplication upon insertion. c. transpose via an RNA intermediate. d. are not found in prokaryotes.
Use the clues to unscramble the science term: Makes up most of Earth's energy _____ (OALRS DIATRIONA)
What implications might the existence of ring species have for conservation:
True or false: The luster of a substance is its breakability or flexibility.