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An indirect or brief historical, literary, or cultural reference to something outside the world of literary work.


A way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular place or certain group


A struggle between two opposing forces

Ex. External Character VS. Self
Character Vs. Nature
Character Vs. Society
Character Vs. Fate
Character Vs. Supernatural

Rising Action

The events leading up into the climax


The highest point of unresolved conflict

Sensory Imagery

The language that appears to one of the five senses

Sight- Visual Imagery
Sound- Auditory Imagery
Smell- Olfactory imagery
Touch- tactile imagery
Taste- Gustatory imagery


A comparison between two unlike things


A comparison between two unlike things that use 'like' or 'as' or 'than'


The attribution of human qualities or characteristics to an object or animal


How the author's use the setting affects the way a reader feels about a scene


How the author's use of dialogue word choice punctuation affects the way a reader feels about a scene

Natural Setting

Spaces/Places or elements that come from nature

Ex. Temperature

Manufactured Setting

Spaces/places or elements that are man-made

Ex. Computer, school

Cultural Setting

Spaces/ places or elects that help to define society.


The reader's uncertainty or anxiety about what will happen next in a story

Unreliable narrator

A first person narrator whose reliability is questioned due to his/her perspective and characterization


A recurring element in a text (can be abstract or concrete) hard to be a noun one word


A message that the author conveys to the reader

Deus Ex Machina

Any unexpected or improbable device used to solve a problem and bring the work to a close

Dynamic Character

A character who undergoes an important inner change, as a change in personality or attitude

Round character

A character who experiences a lot of things and has a lot to him/her.

Flat character

A character who's not deep.

static character

A character who undergoes little or no inner change; a character who does not grow or develop.


A character's moment of realization

verbal irony


situational irony

in which actions have an effect that is opposite from what was intended

dramatic irony

irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters.

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