large waterproof covering. UV light and chemical protection
hair, nails, glands
upper layer. Composed of (The stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germinativum)
cells move to surface, lose water and nuclei change
The Stratum Corneum
outermost layer. Dead, keratinized cells. Barrier to light, heat, chemicals, microorganisms
The Stratum Lucidum
one to two cell layers thick. Flat and transparent. Difficult to see
The Stratum Granulosum
two or three layers. Flattened cells. Active keratinization. Lose nuclei. Compact and brittle
The Stratum Spinosum
several layers of spiny-shaped cells
interlocking cellular bridges
The Stratum Germinativum
rests on basement membrane. Lowermost layer called stratum basale. New cells produced here (mitosis).
Structures Found in Dermis
blood and lymph vessels, Nerves, Muscles, Glands, Hair follicles
Divisions of the Dermis
papillary, reticular, subcutaneous
adjacent to the epidermis
between papillary and subcutaneous
layers of fat below the dermis
covers most of the surface of the body. Three parts - cuticle, cortex, medulla. Consist of Shaft, Root, and Arrector pili.
modified epidermal cells. Consist of Lunula, body, root. Growth occurs from the nailbed
Sebaceous and Sweat
produce sebum (oil). Secretion controlled by endocrine system
most numerous in palms and soles. Sweating helps cool the body
Functions of the Integumentary System
sensation, protection, thermoregulation, secretion.
hot, cold, pressure
light, heat, water loss, foreign substances
blood vessel dilation and sweating
sebum, sweat, Vitamin D
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