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33 terms

Integumentary system Quiz

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Skin
large waterproof covering. UV light and chemical protection
Accessory structures
hair, nails, glands
Epidermis
upper layer. Composed of (The stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germinativum)
Dermis
lower layer
Keratinization
cells move to surface, lose water and nuclei change
The Stratum Corneum
outermost layer. Dead, keratinized cells. Barrier to light, heat, chemicals, microorganisms
The Stratum Lucidum
one to two cell layers thick. Flat and transparent. Difficult to see
The Stratum Granulosum
two or three layers. Flattened cells. Active keratinization. Lose nuclei. Compact and brittle
The Stratum Spinosum
several layers of spiny-shaped cells
Desmosomes
interlocking cellular bridges
The Stratum Germinativum
rests on basement membrane. Lowermost layer called stratum basale. New cells produced here (mitosis).
Melanocytes
produce melanin
Structures Found in Dermis
blood and lymph vessels, Nerves, Muscles, Glands, Hair follicles
Divisions of the Dermis
papillary, reticular, subcutaneous
Papillary
adjacent to the epidermis
Reticular
between papillary and subcutaneous
Subcutaneous (hypodermis)
layers of fat below the dermis
Hair
covers most of the surface of the body. Three parts - cuticle, cortex, medulla. Consist of Shaft, Root, and Arrector pili.
Shaft
visible portion
Root
hair follicle
Arrector pili
smooth muscle
Nails
modified epidermal cells. Consist of Lunula, body, root. Growth occurs from the nailbed
Lunula
white crescent
Body
visible portion
Root
covered by skin
Glands
Sebaceous and Sweat
Sebaceous
produce sebum (oil). Secretion controlled by endocrine system
Sweat
most numerous in palms and soles. Sweating helps cool the body
Functions of the Integumentary System
sensation, protection, thermoregulation, secretion.
Sensation
hot, cold, pressure
Protection
light, heat, water loss, foreign substances
Thermoregulation
blood vessel dilation and sweating
Secretion
sebum, sweat, Vitamin D