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Crossing over ______ genes into assortments of _____not found in the parents

recombines linked...alleles

The chromosome theory of inheritance states that

the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for patterns of inheritance

Imagine that beak color in a finch species is controlled by a single gene. You mate a finch homozygous for orange(pigmented) beak with a finch homozygous for ivory(unpigmented) beak and get numerous offspring, all of which have pale, ivory-orange beak. This pattern of color expression is most likely to be an example of

incomplete dominance

Which of the following is essentially the opposite of pleiotropy?

polygenic inheritance

which of the following statements regarding cross-breeding and hybridization is FALSE?

the hybrid offspring of a cross are the P1 generation

If A is dominant to a, and B is dominant to b, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the cross: AaBb*AaBb


Imagine that we mate two black labrador dogs with normal vision and find that three of the puppies are like the parents, but one puppy is chocolate with normal vision and another is black with PRA( a vision disease) We conclude that

the alleles for color and vision segregate independently during gamete formation

Genes located together on the same chromosomes are referred to as ____ genes and generally _____ not sort independently during meiosis

the mechanism that "breaks" the linkage between linked genes is

crossing over

The sex chromosome complement of a normal human female is


Recessive X-linked traits are more likely to be expressed in a male fruit fly than a female fruit fly because

the males phenotype results entirely from his single X-linked gene

for most sexually reproducing organisms, Mendel's laws

cannot strictly account for the patterns of inheritance of many traits

Linked genes generally

do not follow the laws of independent assortment

sex-linked conditions are more common in men than in women because

men need to inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be fully expressed

All the offspring of a cross between a black eyed mendelien and an orange eyed mendelien have black eyes. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross between two orange eyed mendeliens?

0 black eyed: 1 orange eyed

How is sex determined in most ants and bees?

by the number of chromosomes

Which of the following statements about ribosomes is FALSE?

The ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in structure and function

Experiments have demonstrated that the "words" of the genetic code(the units that specify amino acids) are

three-nucleotide sequences

The shape of a DNA molecule is most like

a twisted rope ladder

A protein coat enclosing a viral genome is known as a(n)


In the genetic code,

many amino acids are specified by more than one codon

which of the following enzymes does HIV use to synthesize DNA on an RNA template?

reverse transcriptase

The mRNA sequence AUCUAAGGC undergoes a mutation and becomes AUCUUUGGC. This is a ______ mutation.


In the 1920's Frederick Griffin conducted an experiment in which he mixed the dead cells of a bacterial strain that can cause pneumonia with live cells of a bacterial strain that cannot. When he cultured the live cells, some of the daughter colonies proved able to cause pneumonia. Which of the following processes of bacterial DNA transfer does this experiment demonstrate?


HIV does the greatest damage to

white blood cells

Multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells serve to

shorten the time necessary for DNA replication

A physical or chemical agent that changed the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a(n)


The mRNA sequence AUCCACGGC undergoes a mutation and becomes AUCCAGGC. This is a _____ mutation

frameshift and missense

DNA replication

uses each strand of a DNA molecule as a template for the creation of a new strand

When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains

50% of the parent DNA

Which of the following enzymes catalyzes the linking together of RNA nucleotides to form RNA?

RNA polymerase

The enzyme that assists mRNA nucleotides in finding their complementary DNA is

RNA polymerase

Which of the following statements about eukaryotic RNA is TRUE?
A) A small cap of extra nucleotides is added to both ends of the RNA
B)The modified RNA molecule is transported into the nucleus
C) Introns are added to the RNA
D)Exons are spliced together

exons are spliced together

Which of the following statements regarding RNA is FALSE?
A) RNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil
B) One RNA molecule can include four different nucleotides in its structure
C) RNA molecules have a sugar-phosphate backbone
D)RNA uses the sugar dextrose

RNA uses sugar dextrose

Which of the following statements regarding a DNA double helix is ALWAYS TRUE?

The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine

The enzyme that unwinds and stabilizes DNA during replication is


Which of the following statements about herpesvirus is FALSE?

herpesvirus reproduce inside the host cell's mitochondria

Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?

in the cytoplasm

In the _______ cycle of viral replication, prophages are formed until an environmental trigger arises


Why does a DNA strand grow only grow in the 5' to 3' direction?

because DNA polymerases can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of the growing molecule

Which of the following permits a single gene to code for more than one polypeptide?

alternative RNA splicing


bind to DNA sequences and inhibit the start of transcription

Transcription factors are used during __________ gene expresssion and attach to________.

eukaryotic; DNA

RNA splicing involves the

removal of introns from the molecule

The coding regions of a gene (the portions that are expressed as polypeptide sequences) are called


The inactive X in each cell of a female condenses into a small object called a

Barr body

The round proteins that DNA coils around as it condenses into chromosomes are called


When researchers inject microRNA into a cell to turn off expression of a certain gene with a sequence that matches the microRNA, the process is called

RNA interference

Active proteins have tertiary and quaternary structure to them because there are linkages between

the sulfur atoms of amino acids.

Is this diagram showing gene regulation in a prokaryote or eukarote? Is there lactose present in the environment? Is transcription occuring?

prokaryote; no; no

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