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Know the definition of a venrtabrit

Animal with a backbone

Know the difference between exoskeleton and endoskeleton

Exoskeleton - external skeleton
Endoskeleton - internal skeleton

Know the characteristics of chordates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals

Chordates - notochord during some point in development Fish - cold-blooded; breathe through gills; live in water
Amphibians - lives part of its life in water and part on land Reptiles - cold-blooded; leathery skin; live on land; most have 2 pairs of legs Birds - warm-blooded; feathers; 2 wings; 2 legs; lightweight bones; beak without teeth; bard-shelled eggs
Mammals - warm-blooded; hair; 4 chambered heart; specialized teeth; highly developed brain; females feed young through mammary glands

Know the difference between innate, learned and social behaviors

Innate behaviors - behaviors an animal is born with Learned behaviors - behavior an animal practices and learns Social behaviors - interaction and reaction to other animals

Know what group humans belong to


Know how amphibians develop

Through complete metamorphosis

Know how animal embryos develop

Develops inside the mother; nutrition is received through the umbilical

Know the difference between endotherm and ectotherm

Endotherm - vertebrate whose body temperature remains about the same; warm-blooded Ectotherm - animal whose body temperature changes with the environment; cold-blooded

What are the levels of organization in the body

Cell - tissue - organ - organ system - organism

Know the definition for homeostasis

Maintaining stable internal environment

Know how structure of an organ effects its function

Ex. Stomach is shaped the way it is to allow food to be churned and mixed; small intestine - villi folded to provide more surface area so more nutrients can be absorbed faster.

Be able to give examples of how the body might maintain homeostasis

Ex. Sweating to help cool the body when you get too hot.

Know the main function of the skeletal system

Provide shape and support; protects organs; produces blood cells and
fat; stores certain materials and enables you to move.

Are bones living or nonliving? Why?

Living because they are made of cells, grow and produce new cells.

Identify and give an example of the different types of joints.

Immovable - skull; movable; and cartilage - end of bone 4 types of movable joints: Ball and Socket - shoulder and hips Hinge - elbow and knees; Pivot - neck; Gliding - wrist

Know how many bones an average adult human has


What is cartilage and where it is located?

Covers end of bone to prevent bone on bone movement

Know and identify the 3 types of muscles

Skeleton - voluntary, striated, react/tire quickly - biceps Smooth - involuntary; Not striated, react/tire slowly - stomach Cardiac - involuntary; striated; DOES NOT TIRE - heart

Be able to explain how muscles work and why they MUST work in pairs

Muscles can only contract (Shorten and thicken). The DO NOT extend. As one muscle contracts, the other returns to its original shape.

How many muscles an average adult human have?

Over 600

What is the name of the strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone?


Where are nerves located?

Nerves are located throughout the body and in the dermis of the skin

Why does it hurt to pull your hair, but not when you cut it?

Hair is non-living but attached by a root. The root has nerves so when it is pulled you can feel it and it hurts. When you cut your hair, you are only cutting the dead portion - no nerves.

What is the function of melanin in the skin?

Melanin provides skin color. More melanin - darker skin

What is the name of the process which involves muscle contractions to move food through the digestive system?


Which part of the digestive system absorbs the most nutrients?

Small Intestine

Know where food does and does not travel in the digestive system

Does NOT travel to: liver, gallbladder, pancreas and appendix DOES travel to: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus

Why carbohydrates and fats are important in your diet

Both supply energy; fats store energy to be used when energy from
carbohydrates are not available

Why are proteins are important?

Growth and repair; build tissues such as muscles

Why are vitamins important and some disease that may occur due to deficiencies in vitamins A, B, D, E and K?

Growth, skin, eyes, bones and teeth
Night Blindness
Growth, skin, eyes, nerves, muscles, fetal development
Beriberi, skin disorders, birth defects, pellagra
bones, teeth, calcium use
Blood, muscle
Mild anemia
liver, blood clotting
Poor blood clotting

How does blood flow through the body?

Oxygenated blood is pumped from the left ventricle to the body through arteries; oxygen/waste is transferred in capillaries and deoxygenated blood moves through veins to the right atrium, then to the right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs where oxygen is returned in the capillaries of the alveoli, moves to the left atrium then the left ventricle and the process begins again.

What is the difference between veins and arteries?

Veins carry blood to the heart; arteries carry blood away

Be able to label a diagram of the heart and know what kind of blood is in each part of the heart.

Blue - deoxygenated (No Oxygen); Red- Oxygenated (has Oxygen)

Where are oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged?


What is the function of platelets?

The fibrin in platelets helps blood to clot

Where does the body produce blood cells?

Red bone marrow

When you get sick what type of blood cell increases?

White blood cells

What blood type is the universal donor?

Type O

Which blood type is the universal recipient?

Type AB

Which blood types can donate to each other?

A can donate to A, AB; B can donate to B, AB; AB can only donate to AB; and O can donate to everyone.

Which part of the lung exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen?

Alveoli (the capillaries located here)

What structure causes air to be exhaled out of the lungs?


Which organ is shared between the respiratory and circulatory systems?

Lungs (alveoli - capillaries)

Which structure in the kidneys filters blood?


Which organ stores urine until it is excreted?


Which organ is shared between the circulatory and excretory system?

Kidneys (capillaries in nephrons)

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