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MTGW: Europe WWII Key Terms
World War II Key Terms IB 20th
Terms in this set (40)
A diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.
Foreign policy of British Prime Ministers towards Germany between 1935 and 1939.
Used in the 1930s to try and prevent Italy/Germany from going to war to achieve their respective objectives.
The cooperation of several countries in an alliance to strengthen the security of each. Has basic assumptions of coordinated defense and strategy.
The "" envisioned by the League of Nations proved useless during the Italo-Ethiopian conflicts, no organization could protect them.
Is difficult to completely attain, and therefore was primarily weak and useless.
An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization
Total power given to a dictator, individual rights denied.
Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy were both this type of state during WWII.
League of Nations
An intergovernmental organization founded in 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. Aimed to resolve international disputes
Was finally changed after WWII due to a lack of control and power over anything.
The Corfu Incident showed that the League of Nations was weak and couldn't settle disputes when a great power confronted a small one. The authority of the League had been openly defied by Italy, a founding member of the League and a permanent member of the Council.
Showed that anyone could defy it without repercussions.
Unable to stop many events that led to WWII:
Italian invasion of Ethiopia,
Germany's annexation of Sudetenland, and Austria
Japan's invasion of Manchuria. Imposed weak sanctions or denounced actions instead of taking on actual methods to keeping governments in line.
A form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism (i.e. eugenics) and anti-semitism. Associated primarily with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state. Ideologies include a strong military, common enemies (Jews, communists, homosexuals, mentally handicapped, etc), remodeling of the working class, and a charismatic leader (Hitler).
Developed out of the influences of Pan-Germanism, nationalist movements, and anti-communist groups.
Subscribes to Social Darwinism. Disagreed with the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles, and pushed for more traditionally German territory. Nazism grew to power from 1933-45, controlling almost every aspect of German life.
Pact of Steel
Military and political alliance between Italy and Germany, signed on May 22nd, 1939. Japan wanted the focus of the pact to be aimed at the Soviet Union, Italy and Germany wanted it aimed at Britain and France. Due to this, the pact was signed without Japan and became an agreement between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, signed on 22 May 1939.
Both Italy and Germany came out of the Depression with similar ideologies, and continued to work closely in the 1930s. Precursor to the Tripartite Pact. Was not very strong, and each side still kept secrets and a wary eye on the other nations.
Coalition formed in 1936 between fascist states Italy and Germany.
Created the Pact of Steel. Led to the Anti-Comintern Pact, ultimately signed by Germany, Japan, and Italy. Geared as propaganda against the Western powers.
spazio vitale & lebensraum
"Vital space and living space". Both advocated for territorial conquest, mostly in the name of resources and cultural unity. Ideologies used both by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.
Advocated for expansion, and aggressive foreign policy. For Germany, this meant resettling farmers (aka putting them in concentration camps) so their lands could be occupied by German farmers, who would then provide more food for the fatherland. For Italy, this was separated into piccolo spazio and grande spazio. The former would be inhabited by Italians, and the latter would be inhabited by non-Italians but still controlled by Italy. They could keep their cultures and languages.
World Disarmament Conference 1932
Goal: to consider reductions in armaments, with particular emphasis on offensive weapons. Sixty countries sent delegates. Conducted by the League of Nations in partnership with the US.
Polarization of Germany and France.
Germany- military was already limited by the Treaty of Versailles. Demanded that other states disarm to German levels or they got to rebuild military forces.
France- feared the revival of German power. Called for security guarantees and the establishment of an international police force before it would reduce its own forces.
Hitler withdrew Germany from both the Conference and the League of Nations in October 1933
The military-minded German governments wanted to be allowed to enjoy the same level of armaments as other powers (namely France).
France was convinced that limiting Germany's military was the only effective way to avoid conflict after WWI.
Incident resulted from the ongoing conflict between Italy and Ethiopia (Abyssinia). Resulted when Italy joined the "scramble for Africa" - desired raw materials. First attempt was in 1896: failure. Second attempt was in 1935: success.
Italy felt the need to expand both in Europe and establish itself as a colonial power in Africa. In doing so, Italy attempted to conquer Ethiopia. Both nations happened to be members of the League of Nations. Undermined the league of nations and encouraged Fascist Italy to ally itself with Nazi Germany. Proved sanctions were only enforced half-heartedly.
Battle for Grain
Economic policy undertaken by the Fascists in Italy during the 1920s as a move toward autarky. Encouraged grain production and discouraged importation.
It had four central aims:
to boost cereal production, to make Italy self-sufficient in grain, to reduce the balance of trade deficit, to lower the necessity for foreign imports of bread, and to show Italy as a major power. In order to continue development as a major power, Mussolini wanted a self-sufficient economy through grain.
Other means of food production significantly decreased due to central focus on grain.
The paramilitary wing of the National Fascist party, and after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of Italy. Members were distinguished by their black uniforms.
Organized in 1919 to destroy socialist political and economic opposition to Mussolini. Used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents. Founders of the groups were nationalist intellectuals, former army officers, and young landowners opposing peasants' and country laborers' unions.
(August 1923) Diplomatic and military crisis between Greece and Italy
Corfu was briefly occupied by Italian forces. An Italian general was murdered on Greek soil while making maps on behalf of the Conference of Ambassadors of a disputed area. Mussolini demanded that Greece pay 50 million lire as compensation, and make a full apology. Greece refused, as they hadn't been responsible.
Greeks appealed to LoN and Italians had to evacuate, but Greece had to pay Italy indemnity
Mussolini ordered naval bombardment of Corfu
After the incident, many Italians saw Mussolini as a national hero.
An artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized speed, technology, youth, and violence and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city.
Glorified modernity and aimed to liberate Italy from weight of its past.
Many Italian Futurists supported Fascism in the hope of modernizing a country divided between the industrializing North and the rural South.
Like Fascists, Futurists admired nationalism, violence, and were opposed to parliamentary democracy.
Proposal by British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare and French Prime Minister Pierre Laval for ending the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
Italy wanted to seize the independent nation of Ethiopia as part of its empire. The proposal would have made much of Ethiopia an Italian colony.
The proposal ignited a firestorm of hostile reaction in Britain and France, and never went into effect.
"Unredeemed Italy": the idea that Italy couldn't be whole until all Italians lived in one common state. Pushed for annexation of territories.
The goal of many Italian nationalists was to gain lands where ethically Italians lived under other governments, either by diplomacy or war. Strong motive for Italy's entry into WWI. Treaty of Versailles satisfied most of the irredentist claims.
Italian Nationalist Association
Italy's first nationalist political party founded in 1910, under the influence of Italian nationalists.
Later merged into the fascist party in 1923.
Authoritarian nationalist faction of the ANI would be a major influence for the National Fascist Party formed in 1921. Supported the repatriation of Austrian held Italian-populated lands to Italy and was willing to endorse war with Austria-Hungary to do so (Italia irridenta).
Italian invasion of Albania (April 7-12, 1939)
A brief military campaign by Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Albania was rapidly overrun, its ruler, King Zog I, forced into exile, and the country made part of the Italian Empire as a separate kingdom in personal union with Italians.
The conflict was a result of imperialist policies of Mussolini. Albania had long had considerable strategic importance, such as ports and naval control.
One of the agreements made in 1929 between Italy and the Holy See, settling the Roman Question. These treaties recognize the Vatican as an independent state.
Regulated relations between Catholic Church and Italian state.
Mussolini agreed to give the church financial support in return for public support from pope.
Upheld in succeeding democratic governments.
Propaganda ploy to build up the prestige and popularity of Mussolini and the fascists. Linked them to the earlier greatness of ancient Rome and its emperors.
The movement imbued Italian expansion with a sort of holy movement. Fascist propaganda in many forms portrayed Mussolini as a new Caesar, who would restore Italian greatness by pursuit of an expansionist foreign policy. Incorporated fascism into the national flag, and placed heavy emphasis on the need to establish a second empire.
Treaty of London (1915)
A secret pact during WWI between the Triple Entente and Italy, signed in London on April 26th 1915 by the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and Italy.
Italy was to leave Triple Alliance and join Triple Entente and declare war against Germany and Austria-Hungary within a month.
Intent was to gain the alliance of Italy against its former allies, including Germany. Treaty caused problems at the Paris Peace Conference. Assuming victory against Germany, the Triple Entente promised Italy many territorial gains (in line with Italia irredenta)
later only granted some territorial demands
nationalists were upset.
Anglo-German Naval Treaty (1935)
Naval agreement between Britain and Germany regulating the size of the German navy in relation to the British navy. Fixed a ratio whereby the total tonnage of the Kriegsmarine was to be 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy permanently.
For Germans, intended to mark the beg. of an Anglo-German alliance against France and Russia. For British, was to be the beg. of a series of arms limitation agreements that were made to limit German expansionism.
Allowed Germany the right to build a Navy beyond the limits set by the Treaty of Vers. British made agreement w/out consulting France or Italy first. Renounced by Adolf Hitler in 1939.
Anschluss (Nov. 1936)
Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and incorporation of Austria into Nazi Germany. Political union of Austria achieved through annexation.
Many Austrians resisted German control, while many cheered and welcomed German troops
contradicting opinions within Austria. Followed by widespread anti-semitic actions and political violence.
Anti-Comintern Pact (Nov. 1923)
Pact between Nazi Germany and Japan.
Directed against the Third (Communist) International and Soviet Union. Later joined by Italy (1937).
Saw the Comintern as disintegrating and subduing existing States, endangers internal peace and social well-being.
Propaganda - Hitler and Mussolini as defending Western values against the threat of Soviet communism. Led to the formation of the Axis Powers.
Beer Hall Putsch (Nov. 1923)
A failed coup attempt by the Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler, along with other leaders, to seize power in Munich, Bavaria. Hitler's "March on Berlin" that failed to get out of Munich.
Hitler's attempt to imitate Mussolini's successful "March on Rome" from the previous year. Hitler briefly imprisoned - used his jail time to expound his ideas about German unity, nationalism, and potential foreign policy. Made Hitler popular, generated front page headlines. Used the time in prison to produce Mein Kampf. Hitler realized the path to power was through legitimate means, not anarchy and revolution.
The original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party.
Known due to the color of their uniform shirts, similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts.
Significant to Hitler's rise to power in 1920s and 30s (similar to Mussolini's "blackshirts"). Disempowered after Hitler ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. Not formally banned until after the Third Reich's final capitulation to the Allied powers in 1945.
A unit composed of volunteers from the German Air Force and Army. Consisted of four bomber squadrons, four fighter squadrons, and was backed by antiaircraft and antitank units.
Served w/ the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939.
Developed methods of terror bombing - used in WWII. Bombing of Guernica (1937) - most infamous operation carried out by the legion. Regime also made use of the conflict as an opportunity for political education.
Dawes Plan (1924)
An attempt in 1924 to solve the WWI reparations problem. Had bedeviled international politics following WWI and the Treaty of Versailles
provided an end to Allies occupation in Germany and staggered payment of reparations.
The plan provided for an end to the Allied occupation, and a staggered payment plan for Germany's war reparations. The plan resolved a serious international crisis.
Dawes shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925 for his work. German nationalists resented the continued reparations payments, but German economy boomed during the second ½ of the 1920s aka "Golden Years".
German Hyperinflation (Jun. 1921 - Jan. 1924)
Three-year period of hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic. Debts from fighting WWI. Too much money, too few goods.
The hyperinflation was a cause of considerable internal political instability in the country, the occupation of the Ruhr by foreign troops, and misery for the general populace.
Eventually resolved with new currency, the introduction of the Reichsbank. Value indexed to the value of gold bonds.
Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (1919-1933)
An early private sexology research institute in Germany. Non-profit foundation in Berlin
Campaigned on conservative and rational grounds for gay rights and tolerance.
After Nazis gained control in 1930s, the institute and its libraries were destroyed as a part of a Nazi gov. censorship program by youth brigades. Pioneer worldwide in the call for civil rights and social acceptance for homosexual and transgender people, contraception, sex education, and STDs.
Locarno Treaties (Oct. 1925)
Seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland. WWI Western European Allied powers and the new states of Central and Eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement, and in return normalize relations with defeated Germany.
Improved the diplomatic climate of western Europe from 1924 to 1930. Introduced a hope for international peace, called the "spirit of Locarno"
Spirit was seen in Germany's admission to the League of Nations in 1926, and in the subsequent withdrawal.
Mefo bills (1934)
Secret gov. bonds which Schacht had printed to conceal the true expenditure on armaments. MEFO had no actual existence or operations and was solely a balance sheet entity.
Mainly issued as payment to armaments manufacturers.
Rearming against the terms of the Treaty of Versailles - needed a way to fund rearming w/out leaving a trail. Created as a temporary method to fund rearming w/ only one million reichsmarks in capital. Fundamental part of Germany's inflation issue.
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (Aug. 1939)
Treaty of nonaggression between Germany and USSR. Non-belligerence towards each other and neither party would ally itself to an enemy of the other party.
Remained in force until the German gov. broke it by launching an attack on the Soviet positions in eastern Poland in June 1941.
Polish-German Non-Aggression Pact (Jan. 1934)
An international treaty between Nazi Germany and the Second Polish Republic. Pledged to resolve their problems thru bilateral negotiations and forgo armed conflict for ten years.
Effectively normalized relations between Poland and Germany that were previously strained by border disputes from the Treaty of Versailles.
Germany recognized Poland's borders and moved to end an economically damaging customs war that existed decade before. Seen as political weakness + lack of leadership. April 1939 - Nazis removed Germany from it and invaded Poland in 1939.
Re-Occupation of the Rhineland (Mar. 1936)
Nazi Germany remilitarized the Rhineland.
Violated terms of the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties that demilitarized Rhineland.
Changed balance of European power from France to Germany. Made it possible for Germany to pursue aggressive policy in Eastern Europe. 1938 - Nazi Germany burst out of its territories, taking Austria and part of Czechoslovakia. 1939 - Hitler invaded Poland → outbreak of WWII.
Reichstag fire (Feb. 1933)
An arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin. Reichstag building seen as the heart of German politics. Destroyed by a young Dutch council communist - Marinus van der Lubbe.
Used as evidence by the Nazi Party that communists were plotting against the German gov.
After, passed a decree that instituted mass arrests of communists. Seen as pivotal in the establishment of Nazi Germany (plurality party → majority). Enabled Hitler to consolidate power.
Stresa Front (Apr. 1935)
An agreement between French, British, and Italian prime ministers. Its aim was to reaffirm the Locarno Treaties and declare that the independence of Austria would continue. Agreed to resist any future German attempt to change the Treaty of Versailles.
Aims were vague + provided no clear enforcing power. Began to break down after Britain signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement in June 1935. Collapsed completely after Italy's invasion of Abyssinia in Oct. 1935.
Sudetenland Crisis (1938)
Began when Hitler demanded self-determination for all Germans in Austria and Czechoslovakia. Sudeten Germans demanded union w/ Germany.
Britain and France gave the Sudetenland to Germany without Czechoslovakia's approval.
Czechs were free to fight, but they would have no support - they chose not to fight.
Treaty of Rapallo (1922)
An agreement between Germany and Russia.
Renounced all territorial and financial claims against the other following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and WWI. Agreed to normalize their diplomatic relations to meet economic needs of both countries.
Ratifications were exchanged in Berlin Jan. 1923 and registered in the LoN Treaty Series. Did not include secret military provisions, but secret military cooperation soon followed. Lasted for about 10 years.
The flourishing of the arts and sciences that happened in Germany during the Weimar Republic (interwar period).
Social environment was chaotic following the war, and politics were passionate. With the rise of Nazism and Hitler's rise to power in 1933, many German intellectuals and cultural figures fled to the US, UK, and other parts of the world.
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