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Louis Pasteur

Pasteurization - kill living cell but not spores
Started to discover that disease is caused by bacteria


believed that life can arise spontaneously from nonliving materials

Francesco Redi

Proved that maggots could not arise spontaneously from decaying meat

Lazarro Spallanzani

used seed unfusions as media and showed that hermetically sealed flasks that were boiled for 1-2 hours remained sterile

Robert Koch

Described endospores, studied disease anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis, solid media to grow microo

Koch's Postulate

Isolate disease, have it grow in media, infect healthy animal with disease, see if it causes same disease, isolate disease again and have it grow in media

Martinus Beijerinck

Enrichment culture technique is an adjustment of nutrient and culturing conditions that favor a microo of interest (selective media)

Sergei Winogradsky

Isolated first nitrogen-fixing bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum (anaerobic); shown the concept of chemolithotrophy (eat inorganic product)

Prokaryotic cell

Contains a nucleoid, where chromosomes are not separated by a membrane from cytoplasm


circular shape


rod shape


spiral shape


only found in eukaryotes; found in their membranes used for strengthening


Found in bacteria and prokaryotes; used for strengthening membranes

Ester linkage

Found in the bacterial phospholipid structure

Ether linkage

Found in the archaea phospholipid structure between the glycerol and the hydrophobic side chains


repeating units of a 5 carbon hydrocarbon; replaces fatty acids which archaea lack


archaea lipids can form when two phytanyl units come together


prevents leakage and functions as a gateway for transport of nutrients into and out of the cell

Protein anchor

site of many proteins involved in transport, bioenergetics, and chemotaxis

Energy conservation

site of generation and use of the proton motive force


is not sufficient to achieve intracellular concentrations necessary for biochemical reactions

Transport proteins

accumulate solutes against a concentration gradient and aid uptake of solutes across the cytoplasmic membrane barrier

Simple transport

involves a membrane spanning transport protein

Group translocation

a series of proteins

ABC systems

3 components


one goes in


one goes in and one goes out


both go in

cascade phosphorylization

group translocation used in the process of getting glucose into the sugar by phosphorylization from PEP

Secreted Proteins

enzyme complexes called translocases function in the secretion of proteins from the cell; include toxins and enzymes for the degradation of large polymers, which themselves cannot be imported into cells

Signal peptide

used in secreted proteins; recognize what should be exported, when recognized going to be cut off, missing the signal


Peptidoglycan is very large/thick; when stained comes out to be purple


Peptidoglycan is very small/thin; when stained will be clear, need to counterstain to appear pink

Aseptic technique

procedure that is performed under sterile conditions

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