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Pasteurization - kill living cell but not spores
Started to discover that disease is caused by bacteria
used seed unfusions as media and showed that hermetically sealed flasks that were boiled for 1-2 hours remained sterile
Described endospores, studied disease anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis, solid media to grow microo
Isolate disease, have it grow in media, infect healthy animal with disease, see if it causes same disease, isolate disease again and have it grow in media
Enrichment culture technique is an adjustment of nutrient and culturing conditions that favor a microo of interest (selective media)
Isolated first nitrogen-fixing bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum (anaerobic); shown the concept of chemolithotrophy (eat inorganic product)
Contains a nucleoid, where chromosomes are not separated by a membrane from cytoplasm
Found in the archaea phospholipid structure between the glycerol and the hydrophobic side chains
prevents leakage and functions as a gateway for transport of nutrients into and out of the cell
is not sufficient to achieve intracellular concentrations necessary for biochemical reactions
accumulate solutes against a concentration gradient and aid uptake of solutes across the cytoplasmic membrane barrier
group translocation used in the process of getting glucose into the sugar by phosphorylization from PEP
enzyme complexes called translocases function in the secretion of proteins from the cell; include toxins and enzymes for the degradation of large polymers, which themselves cannot be imported into cells
used in secreted proteins; recognize what should be exported, when recognized going to be cut off, missing the signal
Peptidoglycan is very small/thin; when stained will be clear, need to counterstain to appear pink
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