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58 terms

Myers AP Psychology Review Unit 4

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sensation
process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system recieve and represent stimulous energies from our environment
perception
process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information; minds interpreting senses
top-down processing
information processing guided by higher level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
selective attention
the focusing of concious awareness on a particular stimulus
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere; pickpocket
change blindness
failing to notice changes in the environment; spotlight
pop-out
stimuli that you weren't expecting
psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time; varies with age
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background stimulation; detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and alertness
subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for concious awareness
automatically
how much of our information processing occurs
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time; experienced as just a notable difference
webler's law
the principle that, to be percieved as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant percentage rather than a constant amount
sensory adaptation
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation; "get used to it"; allows freedom to focus on informative changes in our environment without being distracted
transduction
the transforming of stimulus energies such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brain can interpret
wavelength
the distance form the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak on the next
hue
the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; short=violet (smurfs are short) and long=red (clifford is big)
intensity
the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we percieve as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude (height); smaller=dull, greater=bright
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
lens
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina; flips the image
retina
the light sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white and grey; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
cones
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that funcion in daylight or in well lit conditions; detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
optic nerve
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
fovea
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
accommodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near of far objects on the retina (glasses)
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye; non receptor cells are located there, creating a blindspot
visual information processing
light energy through retina, to receptor cells rods and cones where light energy triggers chemical changes which activate the bipolar cells, then the ganglion cells; ganglion cells converge to form optic nerve and information is carried to your brain
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
parallel processing
processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; brain's natural mode of information processing
visua information processing
scene, retinal processing, feature detection, parallel processing, recognition
retinal processing
receptor rods and cones to bipolar cells, to ganglion cells; waves coming in form image
feature detection
the brain's detector cells respond to specific features; gives image shape
parallel processing
the brain cell teams process combined information about color, movement, form, and depth
recognition
the brain interprets the constructed image based on information from stored images; recognize constructed image
young-helmholtz trichromatic theory
theory that retina contains three different color receptors (red green and blue) which when stimulated, combine to produce the perception of any color
color deficient
lack functioning red or green sensitive cones
opponent process theory
theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green; yellow-blue; white-black) enable color vision
audition
the sense or act of hearing
amplitude
determine sound waves loudness
frequency
determine sound waves pitch
frequency
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
pitch
a tone's experienced highness or lowness
decibels
measure sounds
middle ear
chamber between the eardrum and the cochlea containing 3 tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window
cochlea
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
number of activated hair cells
we detect loudness from the...
place theory
the threory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cohlea's membrane is stimulated
frequency theory
theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, enabling us to sense tis pitch
volley principle
neural cells alternate firing and can therefore achieve a higher combined frequency
conduction hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves or hair
cochlear implant
a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea
pressure, warmth, cold, and pain
four basic touch receptors