55 terms

Organizational Psych Exam 2

A state of heightened physiological arousal- "fight or flight"; can impact health and wellbeing
Acute Stress Responses
Slow digestion and immune system, focus energy on current situation
Normal or constant functioning; an adaptive response returns the body here
The Stimulus; events/factors that induce stress; require an adaptive response
The Response; maladaptive reactions in short and long-term
Stress arousal adaptive in the short-term
Damaging in the long-term
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
The predictable way the body responses to stress as described by Hans Selye
Common Work Stressors
Task/Physical stressors, job characteristics, social factors, and personality/individual differences
Problem-focused coping
Managing the situation
Emotion-focused coping
Managing yourself
State of energy depletion from tasks that is linked to:
§ Impaired performance
§ Emotional exhaustion
§ Depersonalization (stop thinking of others you work with as people)
§ Aggression
§ Health problems
§ Absences
The Yerkes-Dodson Curve
Challenge stressors
Stressors that increase satisfaction, commitment, and performance; reduce turnover
Hindrance stressors
Stressors that increase withdrawal, dissatisfaction, turnover, and decrease performance
Demand-Control Model of Stress
Model created by Karasek in 1979; focuses on job demands (work load and intellectual requirements) and job control (autonomy and freedom of choice in applying skills); says that best jobs are active jobs (high demand and high control)
Person-Environment Fit Model
Model created by French et al. in 1982; focuses on the individual differences in stress/strain; looks at the person-job fit and person-organization fit
Primary Prevention Strategies
Modifying or eliminating stressors themselves (Stressor-Directed)
Secondary Intervention Strategies
Modifying responses to stressors (Stress-Directed)
Tertiary Intervention Strategies
Focus on recovering from negative effects of stressors (Symptom-Directed)
Social Support
Comfort, assistance, or information from contact with others
Instrumental Support
Social support that directly helps with stress management
Informational Support
Social support that provides resources to help
Appraisal Support
Social support that builds self-esteem
Buffer Hypothesis
Social support reduced and provides a barrier against negative effects of stressors (also known as the moderator hypothesis)
4 Kinds of Stressors in the Stimulus Definition of Stress
Acute, time-limited; stressor sequences; chronic, intermittent stressors; and chronic stressors
Homeostatic Model of Stress
Model of stress created by McGrath in 1970; focuses on systems being in balance, systems being demands and coping capacity
Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources model
Model in which the "resources, then, are the single unit necessary for understanding stress"; psychological stress is a reaction to the environment involving:
§ Threat of a net loss of resources
§ Actual net loss of resources
§ Lack of an expected resource gain
Resources in the Conservation of Resources Model
Anything that can be lost/gained that might influence stress and strain; object resources, conditions, personal characteristics, energies, and social support
Resource Loss
Not getting what you were expecting to get
Loss Spirals
Lacking the resources to recover from a loss; turn to "long-shot" coping mechanisms; failure to reduce stress leads to more stress
Perceptions of the quality of relationship between employees and organization
Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness of resource/outcome allocation; relates to Equity Theory
Merit/equity norm
Norm in which equal work demands equal reward; involved in Distributive Justice
Need norm
Norm in which people should receive allocations based on their needs; involved in Distributive Justice
Equality norm
Norm in which everyone should receive (approximately) equal allocations; involved in Distributive Justice
Procedural Justice
Perceived fairness of the allocation process; involves the concept of "voice"
Interactional Justice
Perceived fairness of how employees are treated and respected; involves informational justice and interpersonal justice
Informational Justice
Concept of Interactional Justice: is information disseminated clearly and fairly among all employees?
Interpersonal Justice
Concept of Interactional Justice: are employees treated with respect and dignity?
Deontic Justice
Type of Justice: does the employer adhere to a moral responsibility to do "what's right"?
Factors that influence perceived justice in performance evaluation
○ Supervisor gathered information carefully
○ Employee had opportunities to discuss evaluation with supervisor after completion
○ Employee had opportunities to formally disagree with evaluation
○ Supervisor is seen as qualified to judge subordinate's work
○ Supervisor used consistent standards for evaluation across all subordinates
Adverse Treatment
Disparate treatment; intentionally treating a group differently from others
Adverse Impact
Potentially unintentional discrimination
80 Percent Rule (4/5ths Rule)
If a protected group receives desirable outcomes at less than 80% of the majority group, then adverse impact has occurred
Affirmative Action Programs
Programs designed to account for prior discrimination/mistreatment of groups, which resulted in under-representation in the workplace
Differences in characteristics among a group
Benefits of Diversity
○ Can improve decision-making
○ Can increase team creativity and team performance
○ Can make an organization more adaptable
Costs of Diversity
○ Increases conflict
○ Reduces communication
○ Reduces cohesion, commitment, and satisfaction
Surface-Level Diversity
Diversity that affects immediate impressions; gender, race and ethnicity, nationality, age, etc.
Deep-Level Diversity
Diversity that takes time to recognize; values, beliefs, attitudes, cognitive/behavior styles, etc.
Assimilation Model
Model of Diversity Management that focuses on developing a homogenous workforce
Protection Model
Model of Diversity Management that focuses on identifying disadvantaged/underrepresented groups and offers special protections
Value Model
Model of Diversity Management that focuses on valuing unique contributions of a diverse workforce; success based on inclusion
Felling safe, valued, and able to be yourself within a group