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NASM CPT 4 - Chapter 13
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Study cards for Chapter 13 unit 2
Terms in this set (53)
What is the Principle of Adaptation and what does it consist of?
The ability of the body to adapt to the stress placed on it. It is a function of General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) and the Principle of Specificity (SAID)
What is homeostasis?
the optimal state for the human body (in this case, the human movement system); one of physiological balance
Who first described the general pattern of adaptation?
Hans Selye, a Candian physician
*What is General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)?
it is a term that describes how the body responds and adapts to stress.
Who was Hans Selye and what was his description of adaptation?
He was the first to describe General Adaptation Syndrome. He states that resistance training can be considered a good form of stress called "eustress" that over time allows the human movement system to adapt and thus be able to maintain homeostatic states under a variety of conditions
*What are the three states of response to stress?
Alarm reaction, resistance development, exhaustion
*What are the adaptive benefits of resistance training: physiologic, physical, and performance?
initial reaction to a stressor. Activates a number of physiological and psychological protective processes within the body
What are the physiologic responses that occur during the alarm state?
Increase in oxygen and blood suppy as well as neural recruitment to the working muscles
What is DOMS?
Delayed-onset Muscle Soreness. It is pain or discomfort often felt 24 to 72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity
Define the resistance development stage
the body increases its functional capacity to adapt to the stressor. after repeated training sessions the human movement system will increase its capability to efficiently recruit muscle fibers and distribute oxygen and blood to proper areas in the body
Once adaptation occurs/homeostasis reached, what will be required to elicit the same response?
increased stress or overload
How do personal trainers sometimes misunderstand resistance development?
by only manipulating the amount of weight the client uses when, in fact this is but one of many ways to increase stress on the body.
Prolonged stress or stress that is intolerable and will produce exhaustion or distress to the system
What are the physiological results of exhaustion
it causes breakdown or injury such as stress factures, muscle strains, joint pain, emotional fatigue
How does one avoid the pitfalls of exhaustion stage?
By using the OPT model, a systematic progressive training program; periodization
Division of a training program into smaller progressive stages
Where do training related injuries occur most often?
in connective tissue (such as ligaments or tendons) because connective tissues lack blood supply like muscles
Why should training programs provide a variety of intensities and stresses?
Different tissues in the body (muscle fibers versus connective tissue) each have their own adaptive potential to stresses
When athletes train beyond the body's ability to recover (overtraining) what are some of the potential harmful side effects?
Decreased performance, fatigue, altered hormonal states, poor sleeping patterns, reproductive disorders, decreased immunity, loss of appetite and mood disturbances
*What is the principal of specificity also known as?
SAID principle - Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands
*What does the SAID principle state?
That the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it.
What are Type I muscle fibers?
slow twitch; smaller in diameter; slower to produce maximal tension; more resistant to fatigue; stabilization, endurance, postural control.
What are Type II muscle fibers?
fast twitch; larger in diameter; quick to produce maximal tension; fatigue more quickly; movements requiring force and power
*What are the three adaptations for resistance training?
mechanical specificity, neuromuscular specificity, and metabolic specificity
[Type of stress that pertains to/]Refers to the weight and movements (motion) placed on the body.
[Type of stress that pertains to/]Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection. I.e., making the muscles work efficiently in all planes of motion.
[Type of stress that pertains to/]Refers to the energy demand placed on the body (eg., through aerobic or anaerobic pathways, etc.)
*What are the progressive adaptations from resistance training?
The human movement system's ability to provide optimal dynamic joint support to maintain correct posture during all movements. I.e., the right muscles firing with the correct amount of force to create the desired motion.
How is stabilization training done?
Training is done in controlled yet unstable environments.
The ability to produce and maintain force production for prolonged periods of time.
How is muscle endurance training done?
Higher repetitions with low to moderate resistance. Often this stage utilizes a superset of resistance exercise plus a stabilization exercise.
Enlargement of skeletal muscle fibers in response to overcoming force from high volumes of tension.
How is hypertrophy training done?
Moderate to heavy resistance with intermediate repetition ranges.
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce internal tension to overcome an external load.
How is strength training done?
Heavier weights and very low repetitions.
Why is strength training a function of activating the entire neuromuscular system?
Because especially in the early stages of training, it is essential that the neuromuscular system recruit more motor units and increase neural demand on the muscle fibers. Once this plateaus, it is a matter of increasing fiber hypertrophy.
What is power?
The ability of the neuromuscular system to produce the greatest force in the shortest time.
How is power training done?
Explosive movements and less resistance. Usually a superset of a strength exercise followed by an explosive of plyometric exercise.
*Resistance Training Systems - Summary
*Single-set Resistance Training System
Performing one set of each exercise
*Multiple-set Resistance Training System
Performing a multiple number of sets for each exercise
*Pyramid Resistance Training System
Increasing (or decreasing) weight with each set
Performing two (sometimes more) exercises in rapid succession with minimal rest.
Performing a set to failure, then removing a small percentage of the load and continuing with the set.
Performing a series of exercises, one after the other, with minimal rest
*Peripheral heart action (Resistance Training System)
A variation of circuit training that uses different exercises (alternating upper and lower body for each set through the circuit).
*Split-routine (Resistance Training System)
A routine that trains different body parts on separate days.
*Vertical Loading (Resistance Training System)
Performing exercises on the OPT template on after the other, in a vertical manner down the template
*Horizontal loading (Resistance Training System)
Performing all sets of an exercise (or body part) before moving on to the next exercise (or body part).
*How do you progress body position during and exercise?
Legs: 2-legs on a stable surface, then one
Arms: two arms, alternating arms, single arm
What would be the immediate progression of a "Single-Leg Dumbbell Curl?"
a. single-leg, alternating arm, stable
b. single-leg, single arm, stable
c. two-leg, alternating arm, unstable
d. two-leg, single-arm, unstable
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
NASM CPT 4 - Chapter 9
NASM CPT 4 - Chapter 10
NASM CPT 4 - Chapter 14
NASM CPT 4 - Chapter 12
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