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Activities of Daily Living (ADL)

Activities normally performed for hygiene, bathing, household chores, walking,shopping and similar activities.


The arrangement of the body and its limbs

Neuromuscular efficiency

The ability of the neuromuscuar system to allow muscles that produce movement and muscles that provide stability to work together synergistically an an integrated functional unit

Correctible factors

* Repetitive movements
* Awkward positions and movements
*Side dominance
* Lack of joint stability
*Lack of joint mobility
*Imbalanced strength training programs

Non-correctible factors

* Congenital conditions e, g, scoliosis
* Some pathologies e.g. rheumatoid arthritis
* Structural deviations
*Certain types of trauma, injury, amputation

Frontal plane

A longitudinal section that runs at a right angle to the sagittal plane, dividing the body into anterior and posterior positions.

Sagittal plane

The longitudinal plane that divides the body into the right and left positions.

Line of gravity

A theorectical vertical line passing through the center of gravity, dissecting the body into two hemispheres.

External rotation

Outward turning about the vertical axis of the bone.


Lying face up


Rotation of the foot to direct the plantar surface outward.


Movement of the foot upward toward the shin.

Plantar flexion

Distal movement of the plantar surface of the foot; opposite of dorsiflexion


Excessive anterior curvature of the spine that typically occurs at the low back (may also occur at the neck.


The act of moving a joint so that the two bones forming it are brought closer together.


The act of straightening or extending a joint.


Excessive posterior curvature of the spine that typically occurs at the lower back.

Five primary movements performed during daily activities.

* Bending/raising and lifting/lowering movements e.g. squats.
* Single leg lift movements
*Pushing movements(vertical/horizontal planes and resultant movement
*Rotational movements

Bend and Lift Screen

Objective; To examine symmertrical lower-extremity mobility and stability, and upper extremity stability during a bend and lift movement.

Hurdle Step Screen

Objective; To examine simultaneous mobility of one limb and stability of the contralateral while maintaining hip and torso stabilization under a balanced challenge of standing on one leg.

Shoulder Push Stabilization Screen

Objective; To examine the stabilization of the scapulothoracic joint during closed kinectic chain pushing movements.

Shoulder Pull Stabilization Screen

Objective; To examine the client's ability to stabilize the scapulothoracic joint during closed kinectic chain movements.

Thoracic Spine Mobility Screen

Objective; To examine bilateral mobility of the thoracic spine.

Thomas Test for Hip Flexion/Quadriceps Length

Objective; To assess the length of the muscles involved in hip flexion.

Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSL)

Objective; To assess the length of the hamstrings

Shoulder Flexion and Extension

Objective; To assess the degree of shoulder flexion and extension


Anterior superior iliac spine

Internal and External Rotation of the Humerus at the Shoulder

Objective; To assess internal (medial) and external (lateral) rotation of the humerus at the shoulder joint

Apley's Scratch Test for Shoulder Mobility

Objective; To assess simultaneous movements of the shoulder girdle (primarily the scapulothoracic and glenohumeral joints).

Sharpened Romberg Test

Objective; to assess static balance by standing with a reduced base of support while removing visual-sensory information.

Stork-stand Balance Test

Objective; To assess static balance by standing on one foot in a modified stork-stand position.

Blood Pressure Cuff Test

Objective; To assess core function, as demonstrated by the ability to draw the abdominal wall inward via coordinated action of transverse abdominis (TVA) and related core muscles without activation of rectus abdominus.

Three movements peformed as part of Apley's scratch test for shoulder mobility

*Shoulder flexion and extension
* Internal and external rotation of the humerus at the shoulder
* Scalpular abduction and adduction

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