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RTF 305 Exam 1
Exam 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (88)
History and Theories
The exchange of information is the predominant economic activity.
Telephone (1962 with AT&T)
Print Media (1960s)
Film (1974 with Star Wars)
Video Games (Developed in 1962)
Recordings (First CD in 1982)
Cable & Satellite TV (1998 converted to digital)
Broadcasting (HDTV replaced conventional tv in 2009)
Digital Media: impact on society
4/5ths of Internet users watch video online 10 hours a month. 3/4ths of Internet users visited the Internet for political purposes. Young adults are no longer reachable by conventional mass media.. cell phones, online communities, and video games
The integration of mass media, computers, and telecommunications
Telecommunications Act of 1996
Deregulated media companies (publishing, broadcasting, cable, satellite, telephones) hoping to spark competition and lower prices. Resulted in mergers and bankruptcies.
When one company owns large numbers of companies in various mass media (TV, radio, publishing, movies, and Internet). Comcast, The Walt Disney Company...
Evolution to an information society
As standardized media products were distributed to ever-expanding mass markets.
Preagricultural societies had oral traditions: Illiad and Odyssey, folk tales, songs.
Agricultural Society: literacy common amongst priests and upper classes.
The SMCR Model
A model of mass communication:
Source - the originator of communication
Message - the content
Encoder - translates the message into a form that can be communicated
Channel - the medium of transmission to relate the message
Decoder - reverses the encoding
Receiver - destination of the message
Feedback Mechanism - between the source and the receiver that regulates the flow of communication
Noise - any distortion or errors during the exchange
Types of Communication
Simply the exchange of meaning:
Intrapersonal - talking to yourself
Interpersonal - two or more people
Group - three or more people
Small Group - fewer than a dozen people
Large Group - 12 to 100s of people
Industrial Society and Communication
Johannes Gutenberg's printing press allowed mass production of texts and improved literacy among the people. Newspapers and magazines.
Media targeted to a specific segment of the audience.
First Copy Costs
Everything that goes into making the master print. For Harry Potter it would be salaries of actors, production costs, buying the cameras, making the sets...
The incremental cost of each additional copy or unit of a product (newspapers and magazines have a high marginal cost while tv, radio, and websites have no marginal costs)
Economics of Scale
When media companies combine their companies and slash the staff. Example: Independent local newspapers are combined under one management so that a single advertising office serves two papers instead of one.
Purchasing all levels of production (studio, editing, distributing, and move theaters)
Purchasing all competing companies in the same industry (Buying radio broadcasting companies)
When the same company owns several types of media (If one company owned the local newspaper, local radio, and local TV station).
A single company dominates the market (Apple)
A few firms dominate the market
Two companies dominate
How Media Makes Money
Direct Sales: when consumers pay to purchase a product (iPods)
Rentals: when consumer pays to borrow a product. Retail buys from manufacturer and makes a profit from renting it out multiple times (DVDs)
Subscriptions: Payments are made for a continual service instead of a single product (Newspapers, Cable)
Usage Fees: Admission fees to the movies or pay per view on TV
Advertising: Main source for most newspapers, TV, and Radio. Advertisers buy commercial time.
Syndication: Media is rented to media outlets instead of consumers. Reruns of old movies and shows.
License Fees: Compensate media creators for the use of their original content. Royalty fee for musicians.
Subsidies: Government funded programming such as PBS.
Voluntary donations: made my corporations, foundations, and viewers like you. (Kickstarters)
When people decide what stories get aired and what don't
Who sets the public agenda?
The use of media to create a consensus around certain ideas. (Brainwashing?)
New Media Economics
Internet means personalization to the extreme. Target programming, targeted ads. Google charges for prime space and only per click.
Inspired by Karl Marx. Analyzes patterns of class domination and economic power.
Oppression of women and how it is perpetuated by the media.
Looks at media as a type of literature and applies the traditions of literary criticism. Focuses on genres. Also looks at symbolism.
Are we in one right now? We have moved from an economic determinism to a cultural determinism. There is no universal truth, what you think is as valid as what anyone else thinks.
Diffusion of Innovations
The study of how successful media technology is and why it is so. Looks at price, social norms, the first to use these innovations. A critical mass (number of people) need to adopt the new thing for people to go along with the trend.
Innovators > Early adopters > Early majority > Late majority > Laggards
Technology drives social change. It is the dominant social force and the medium is the message. The way we think is determined by what media we consume.
Tough Guise/Killing Us Softly
1) How media makes a damaging concept of masculinity
2) How advertising depicts women
Effects and Research Strategies
Different Methods of studying Media Impact
1) Content Analysis: characterizes the content of the media. Has television become more violent over the years?
2) Experimental Research: studies media effects under controlled conditions. Bandura's Bobo doll.
3) Survey Research: Administering questionnaire's to random samples.
4) Ethnographic Research: Naturalistic observation. Sherry Turkle observed people using the internet in libraries and comp labs.
Uses and Gratification
We actively select media to satisfy our needs.
Bandura. Expected outcomes. If we feel joy watching a George Clooney movie we will watch the next one. We will also watch movies that positive buzz surrounding them.
Magic Bullet Theory (hypodermic)
The Audience does exactly what the media says. Hitler's radio speeches.
The audience follows the opinion of leaders that interpret the media.
These leaders might get their opinions from the Huffington Post (a blog), and then they will share their opinions with their country club circle, and then the club circle will share this opinion with their families, coworkers, and other clubs (who may have never heard of the Huffington Post).
The audience interpret media in their own way. Audiences only listen to what they already believe. Republicans watch Fox News, young liberals watch the Daily Show.
The audience thinks that the real world works like the TV world. People who watch too much Law and Order: SVU will think that they are more likely to be victims of violent crime.
Watching media triggers related thoughts. Watching a cartoon drop an anchor on the mouse might make children want to beat up their little brother next time they are angry.
Strong vs Weak Effects
Strong: Magic Bullet, Social Learning, Cultivation Theory, Priming, (Advertising and Propaganda)
Weak: Multistep, Selective Processes, Active Audience, Reception Theory
Continuing power of ownership and political power to set ideology and media power.
All Americans are middle class (most are poor).
Allows media users to indirectly satisfy their desires (violent video games and sex). Lessens their urge to act them out in real life.
Focus on the LARGE scale cultural effects of media.
Violence, Prejudice, sexual behavior, drug abuse.
Information campaigns (anti smoking, voting, safe sex), informal education (sesame street), formal education (classroom video games)
"The Father of Radio", Italian-British inventor that develops a "wireless telegraph". Used for business communication especially on ships.
Impact of Patents
Marconi patents his technology and uses the money from his radio to create the First Transatlantic Radio Transmission in 1901
Wireless and the Titanic
Early radio was a period of amateurs (unrestricted use by inventors and hobbyists). Titanic was a turning point, it was difficult for anyone to get a distress call out when the ship was sinking. The Marconi operators were business communicators, not trained for emergencies. Government fears more chaos.
Radio Act of 1912
In America, after the Titanic, the Navy gains control over radio broadcasts. It has a national defense aspect to it.
Role of the Navy
Airwaves are now run by the navy and big business. Radio Licenses are extremely restricted and the radio is no longer free, interactive, or public.
Rise of RCA in the 1919s
After WWI, the government fears foreign domination from the British Marconi patent. Government forms the Radio Corporation of America. Federally formed monopolies.
AT&T - build and sell towers
General Electric and Westinghouse - home radio recievers
Supervising the development of RCA.
Westing House: No advertisements, you had to buy the receivers.
AT&T: Sell air time to advertisers who create the shows and ads. Radio companies only produce access to a national broadcast.
Why did the Big 3 Networks Rise?
NBC, CBS (duopoly) and then ABC
Reasons for the FCC
1934 Federal Communications Commission to step in if one company becomes too powerful.
Must buy all of their programs to watch listen to one program. FCC steps in and and disallows this and forms ABC.
Competition from Television
1948, television exploded. Most non musical programming (news and operas) moved to television.
Rise of the DJ Era
As TV rose, network radio fell. Radio shifted from national formats to local formats with recorded music, news and talk. Success started to depend on the personality of each station's own announcers.
Impact of FM tech
Revived radio in the 1960s. Allowed for more stations in each market by reducing interference. More specific genres and formats.
1996 Telecommunications Act
Allowed radio station groups to acquire more stations but limited it to a specific market. Two or three groups controlled 90% of radio ad revenues in most towns.
New Radio Technologies
Satellite radio which offers hundred of channels (not turning a profit though) and internet radio. Also HD radio.
Horizontal Integration and Radio Today
After deregulation in 1996, stations are now controlled by a few non-local groups. Clear Channel hopes for national coverage. However this lowers diversity.
History of Music
Gospel, Blues, Bluegrass
When genres of music blend with different traditions to form new ones. Rock and Roll.
The legal right to control intellectual property.
Impact of Digital Tech
Diminished the music industry's role as gatekeepers. Allowed more independent musicians to be successful.
A sound that is not elecronically amplified
An early phonograph. 1906.
When record companies bribed DJs to play their records.
Independent, Universal, Sony, Warner, EMI
History of Film
Use of stars' popularity to promote movies. Each studio had stable recognizable stars and sometimes loaned stars to each other. Marilyn Monroe. The studios also developed "house genre" geared toward specific stars.
Self regulation of sex on screen
Rise and Fall of Classical Hollywood
Golden Age from 1920s-1940s. Most successful in film history.
Characteristics of the Studio System
Dominated by a small group of companies (Cartel) used vertical integration. Achieved market control by creating barriers to entry, it was almost impossible to break through.
Created a trade organization, so if you were an independent filmmaker, the only way you could distribute your film was to go through them.
Factory like system of production on the West Coast. Inspired by Henry Ford.
Actors and other top talent were under contract with each company. So Humphrey Bogart could only work with Warner Bros.
Big Five vs. Little Three
Called the "Big Eight"
Paramount (oldest), MGM, RKO, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Were fully integrated. Owned all big first run theaters. Seated 5,000 people! (Today 150 seats)
Columbia, United Artists (focused on financing and distributing and created by big movie stars Charlie Chaplin), Universal
Produced A class movies but did not own movie theater chains.
Writer's strike. Craft Guilds still hold a ton of power.
Films are released simultaenously over the world to prevent piracy.
HUGE HIT! Won the Oscar in 1942. Shows that each studio has a "house style". Humphrey Bogart was famous as a hardboiled private eye. They usually used the same sets over again.
A Bogart movie, sort of a film noir but really made to explicitly address WWII. Released shortly after Pear Harbor.
Hardboiled detective genre. This is what Warner Bros moved toward in the 1930s. An evolution from urban crime dramas.
Maltese Falcon defined this genre.
Film during WWII
Hollywood reached its peak during the war. Hollywood was allowed to make commercial films as long as some of them support the war effort. 1/3 of all films, supported the war effort. Homefront or warfront movies.
1948 Paramount Decree
Forced studios to sell the theaters they owned. Caused a depression in Hollywood after WWII. Studios also could not sell films as a bundle deal.
The Threat of TV
TV began to expand after the war. People did not go to the movies two or three times a week anymore. Hollywood had to turn to event films to try and draw audiences.
Syndicated older films to TV and made B movies for straight to TV. Also started to produce television programs.
Jaws and the Birth of the Blockbuster
1960s. Hollywood abandoned mass production and tried to make fewer, bigger, more bombastic. Sound of Music. Indiana Jones.
New Hollywood and the Renaissance
Technological change shifts things in 1980s.
De-regulation allows studios to become involved in TV networks. So you get NBC-Universal.
Own major movie studios, all broadcast TV networks, all but one Indie film company, leading cable networks, music, theme parks...
Rise of Independent Cinema
Studios annex the indie film market.
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