Terms in this set (184)
Words or phrases that refer to intangible ideas or to classes of people and objects rather than the people or things themselves. Abstractions are built on concrete ideas.
A type of noun that can't be detected using your 5 senses. (Sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste.)
In an active sentence, the subject performs the action of the verb, the person or thing that performs the action is named before the verb.
James filed the papers yesterday.
Jin Lee sang the song beautifully.
A word that describes the noun or pronoun in a sentence. Adjectives answer 1 of 3 questions about another word in a sentence.
(Which one, what kind, and how many?)
A word that descrives verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Adverbs answer 1 of the 4 questions of another word in a sentence.
(Where, when, how, to what extent)
The repetition of sounds, especially at the beginning of words.
Ex: She sells sea shells down by the sea shore.
Peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.
The person, force, or idea working against the protagonist.
The word or words to which a specific pronoun refers.
Ex: Denise lost an earring and she can't find it.
(Denise is the antecedent of the pronoun she. Earring is the antecedent of the PRONOUN it.)
A symbol ( ' ) used to show possession. It shows to whom or what a NOUN belongs to.
A word or group of words that immediately follows a noun ot pronoun. The appositive makes the pronoun more defined by explaining or indentifying it.
In drama, when a character speaks directly to the audience or another character concerning the action on stage, but only the audience or the character addressed in the aside is meant to hear.
The true account of a person's life written by that person.
A poem that tells a story, usually rhyming. Typically, only the 2nd and 4th lines of a quatrain are rhymed.
Poetry in which the structure is controlled only by a metrical schedme. Also called metered verse.
Cause and Effect
A relationship where in one action or event ( the cause ) creates another action or event ( the effect ).
Ex: Because she'd studied for her test every morning during her commute to work, Maria felt ready to take the test.
People created by an author to carry the action, language, and ideas of story or play.
A group of words that contains both a subject and a predicate
A tired, overused word or phrase.
The Turning Point or high point of action and tension in the plot.
A play that is meant only to be read, not performed.
Informal word or phrase such as a lot, in a bind, pulled it off, and so on. These words are regularly used in conversations between friends / rather than in official written communication.
Symbol (:) used to introduce a list of items; the part before the colon should be a complete sentence.
Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce a list.
Ex: Travis requested his favorite Mel for his birthday: pizza, cheese bread, and ice cream.
Use a colon after an independent clause to introduce a quotation.
Ex: Emily explained her reason for leaving the magazine: " It's a dead-end job, no matter how hard I work."
Use a colon between two independent clauses when you want to emphasize the second clause.
Ex: The result of the poll was clear: Obama would probably win the election.
Humorous writing or ideas.
Use commas to separate three or more items in a series that includes the word and or or. Do not use a comma when only two items are joined by and or or. Use a comma after an introductory phrase. Use a comma before a conjunction that joins two independent clauses. Use commas to separate and a positive from the rest of the sentence. Use a comma when a dependent clause comes before the independent clause. Use a comma to separate the year in a date. Use commas to separate a state name from a city or a county name from a city name.
A type of run on sentence in which a, is used in place of a semicolon to join two independent clauses without a conjunction., slices can be corrected by putting a semicolon in place of the, or by adding a conjunction after the comma.
Writing that explains or illuminates other works of literature or art.
A noun (person, place, or thing) that is not always capitalized.
Compare and contrast
Comparing and contrasting are common techniques in writing. They can be used for many reasons. For example, to describe the character more colorful eat or to provide support for an argument that the writer is trying to make. When we want to explain something, we often compared showing how two or more things are similar. When we want to show how things are different or not like, we can trust them.
A group of words that express is a complete thought and has a verb and a subject. Also called an independent clause. Independent clause: she was excited. Dependent clause: because she was excited. Notice that the dependent clauses incomplete semicolon it needs an additional thought to make a complete sentence such as: she spoke very quickly because she was excited. The independent clause, however, can stand alone. It is a complete thought.
A sentence that contains both a dependent clause and an independent clause( they are joined together by the sub ordinating conjunctions that's built into the dependent clause). A complex sentence can begin with either the independent clause or the dependent clause.
The series of events that "complicate" the plot and build up to the climax.
The last stage in a narrative of the scientific method, what explanations are made about why the patterns identified in the analysis stage occurred.
A struggle or clash between people, forces, or ideas.
A joining words such as and, but, or, for, nor, so, or yet.
An adverb that joins independent clauses. Conjunctive adverbs are punctuated differently than regular conjunctions.
A technique used to tie characters or events together in a piece of writing, often used to height and drama or reveal the theme.
Implied or suggested meaning. For example, the word slim has a different connotation than the word thin; slim suggest more grace and class than thin.
The words and sentences surrounding a word or phrase that help determine the meaning of that word or phrase.
The process of joining together two words to create one shorter word. An apostrophe replaces the letter(s) removed in the process.
Words that are used to connect independent clauses together to create one longer sentence. The most common coordinating conjunctions are and, but, or, yet, and so.
A pair of rhyming lines in poetry.
Words, phrases, or clauses that mistakenly modify the wrong noun or pronoun.
Exact or dictionary meaning. For example, the words slim and thin have a similar denotation.
The resolution or conclusion of the action.
Clauses that express an incomplete thought and cannot stand on their own. They need to be attached to an independent clause in order to fully make sense.
Ex: after Emily won the contest.
That you should avoid eating in order to lose weight.
Before they brought the potato salad.
A prolonged and severe period of low economic productivity and incomes.
Details provided by others to help readers create a mental picture. Descriptive details in writing let you more easily visualize a person, place, object, or event.
Descriptive elements: a small, fat woman in black.
A thin gold chain descending to her waist and vanishing into her belt.
Leaning on an ebony cane with a tarnished gold head.
Language that differs from the standard language in grammar, pronunciation, Idioms (natural speech versus standard english); language used by a specific group within a culture.
The verbal exchange between two or more people; a conversation.
The particular choice and use of appropriate words; combining them in the right way to communicate your message accurately.
A negative word added to a statement that is already negative. For example, I don't want nothing.
Incorrect: He doesn't have no idea what she's talking about.
Correct: He doesn't have any idea what she's talking about.
Literature that is meant to be performed.
When a character's speech or actions have an unintended meaning that is known to the audience but not to the character.
A poem that laments the loss of someone or something.
Symbol ( . . . ) use to show that quoted material has been omitted, or to indicate a pause or hesitation.
A specialized punctuation mark ( - ) that can be used to mark a sudden break and thought or to insert a comment, emphasize explanatory material, indicate omitted letters or words, or connect a beginning phrase to the rest of the sentence.
Every si you guys should follow this basic structure:
Introduction (states your thesis)
Body (explains and supports your thesis with evidence from the passage and your insights)
Conclusion ( bring closure and restates your thesis)
The repetition of identically stressed sounds at the end of words (cat and hat; laugh and staff; refine and divine).
The conveyance of background information necessary to understand the complication of the plot.
Words that look like they should rhyme because of spelling, but because of pronunciation, they do not ( slaughter and laughter; enough and though; bough and through)
A statement of truth. It is based on direct evidence, actual experience, or observation.
One or two or more numbers or variables that are being multiplied together.
The events that take place immediately after the climax, in which loose ends of the plot are tied up.
In poetry, a group of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Prose literature about people, places, and events invented by the author.
Comparisons not meant to be taken literally but used for artistic effect, including similes, metaphors, and personification.
First - person point of view
A piece of writing told from the I(singular) or we(plural) perspective.
When an earlier event or scene is inserted into the chronology of the plot.
Poetry that is free from any restrictions of meter and rhyme.
Literature that is valued mainly for the information it conveys, not for its beauty of form, emotional impact, or message about human experience.
Future perfect tense
Verb form that shows continuing actions that will be completed at a certain time in the future
Future progressive tense
Verb form that shows continuing actions in the future. For example, "I will be running in next year's Boston Marathon."
Verb form that shows action that has yet to happen. For example, "I will move to Florida when I retire."
Category or kind; in literature, the different kinds or categories of texts.
Nouns that are created by taking a verb and adding the - ing suffix.
A short, imagistic poem of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables, for spectively.
Half - rhyme
The repetition of the final consonant at the end of words. ( cat and hot; adament and government; soul and all)
A set of distinct words with different meanings and spellings that are pronounced alike.
Extreme exaggeration not meant to be taken literally, but done for effect. For example, "I am so hungry I could eat a horse."
Symbol - used to join words in creating compound nouns or adjectives. Hyphens can be used to do the following: join two equal nouns working together as one. (Teacher-poet); join multi-word compound nouns(up-to-date); drain two or more words that function as a single adjective preceding the noun(a soft-spoken person) and join prefixes and suffixes to words(ex-husband, secretary-elect)
A metrical pattern in poetry in which each line has 10 syllables and the stress falls on every second syllable. The da-dum of a human heartbeat is the most common example of this rhythm.
The representation of sensory experiences through language. For example, "her face blossomed when she caught a glimpse of him."
A group of words that express is a complete thought and can stand on its own as a sentence. Examples: she was excited. It started snowing. She jumped up and down in excitement.
A conclusion based on reason, fact, or evidence.
An infinitive is the base form of the verb plus the word. The infinitive form can be used in many ways in a sentence. Examples to go - to return, to dream - to work, to eat - to buy.
A phrase that begins with the infinitive form of a verb (one that follows the word to) that functions as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb in a sentence. Ex: "he helped us to build the roof."
A pronoun that is used to ask a question.
The use of words to express something other than and especially the opposite of the literal meaning.
Verbs that don't follow the standard rules for changing tense. Many irregular verbs from the past tense by changing the vowel to an A. Examples begin to begin sing to sang spring to sprang come to came overcome to overcame run to ran
Literature valued for its beauty of form, emotional impact, and message(s) about the human experience.
Any written or published text.
The overall fact, feelings, or thought a writer wants to convey about his or her subject. It is the idea that holds together or controls the passage.
A play propelled by exaggerated emotion and action, with a happy ending.
An autobiographical text that focuses on a limited number of events and explore their impact on the author.
A type of figurative language that compares two things by saying they are equal. Example - he is the apple of my eye.
Jamie was the heart of the organization: all ideas came from her and circulated back to her for feedback.
His smile is a ray of sunshine that makes people feel happy, no matter how down they are.
The number and stress of syllables in a line of poetry.
Words, phrases, or clauses that describe nouns and pronouns, but our place too far away (in a sentence) from the words they describe.
In drama, a play or part of a play performed by one character speaking directly to the audience.
Infection, the character or person who tells the story.
The case of a noun or pronoun used as the subject or a compliement following a linking verb (am, is, are, was, were- any form of be).
Prose literature about real people, places, and events.
Non restrictive clause
A group of words that simply as information, but is not essential to the basic meaning of a sentence. If it is removed the basic meaning of the sentence is not changed. Non-restrictive clauses must be set off by commas. Also known as a non-essential Claus.
Objective case pronoun
Word used as the object following an action verb or as the object of a preposition.
The process of looking carefully at a piece of text and noticing specific things about how it is written. You may notice, for example, the point of view that the author has chosen.
A poem that celebrates a person, place, or thing.
A third - person narrator who knows and reveals the thoughts and feelings of the characters.
The intentional absence of information from a piece of writing, often employed for a dramatic or creative effect.
When the sound of a word echoes its meaning example - bang, beep, splash.
A statement of belief, judgment, or feeling. It shows someone's personal thoughts about a subject.
A group of sentences about the same idea.
Two or more equivalent ideas in a sentence that have the same purpose, presented in the same form. Ex: We came, we saw, we conquered. (All three clauses start with we and use a past-tense verb.)
Symbol ( ) used to enclose explanatory material that interrupts the normal flow of a sentence. They also enclosed information when accuracy is essential and enclosed letters or numbers in a list, marking a division from the rest of the text.
Past perfect progressive tense
Verb form that shows continuing action that began in the past. Example: she had been painting the door before the cat scratched it.
She was walking when the rain started.
When the phone rang, they were singing.
Past perfect tense
Verb form that shows an action completed in the past or completed before some other past action. Examples: Kristen had never been to an opera before last night.
Yesterday, Teresa told me that she thought Harry had cheated on her during their honeymoon.
Past progressive tense
Verb form that shows a continuing action in the past. For example, "we were eating dinner when the phone rang."
Verb form that shows action that happened in the past. For example, "he washed his car."
Figurative language that and as non human or non animal objects with human characteristics. Example:
The candle flame danced in the dark.
The ordering of events in a story.
Literature written in verse.
Point of view
The perspective from which something is told or written.
A possessive noun shows the ownership that the noun has over something else. To make a noun possessive, add the following to the end of the word:
for most singular nouns: add an apostrophe and the letter S.
For most plural nouns: add just an apostrophe.
Ex: the two brothers' toys
The ladies' room
The child's blanket
Pronouns that show ownership. Some possessive pronouns function as nouns themselves, while some function as adjectives and are used to describe a noun.
Present perfect progressive tense
Verb form that shows action that began in the past and is continuing in the present. For example, "they have been talking for the last hour."
Present perfect tense
Verb form that shows an action that began in the past. For example, "I have seen that movie ten times."
Present progressive tense
Verb form that shows an action happening now. It ends in - ing and is accompanied by one of the following helping verbs: am / is / are (the present tense of the verb to be). Examples:
Adam is driving to the fair.
They are sleeping.
They are walking to the picnic.
Verb form that shows action that happens now or action that happens routinely. Example:
I run in the park.
A pronoun is a word that replaces or refers to a noun.
Nouns that name a specific person, place, or thing. Proper nouns must be capitalized. Some examples of proper nouns include days of the week, holidays, historical events, names of people, landmarks, cities and states, names of products, and works of art and literature.
Literature that is not written in verse or dramatic form.
The hero or main character of a story who faces the central conflict.
A play on the meaning of a word.
An author's purpose is the reason that he or she decides to write about a specific topic.
In poetry, a stanza of four lines.
Symbols ( " " )used to set up a direct quotation or thought within a sentence or paragraph. They are also used to say off unfamiliar terms and nicknames. Do not use quotation marks for paraphrases or indirect quotations.
Techniques and strategies that writers used to make information easier to process, including the use of headings and lists.
The same idea expressed twice using different words; words with meaning that overlap.
Redundant: Turn left at the green colored house.
Correct: Turn left at the green house.
Words that follow a standard set of rules for forming the simple past tense, like interrupted and carried.
A pronoun that includes the word self or selves: myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, themselves.
A writing technique in which the author repeat certain words, phrases, symbols, actions, or ideas, or has certain characters reappear throughout a story. This is often a clue that those words, phrases, characters, and so on have a special importance.
A group of words., if emitted from a sentence, changes the entire meaning of the sentence, or even makes the sentence untrue. The restrictive clause is not set off with commas. Also known as an essential clause.
The repetition of an identical or similar stressed sound(s) at the end of words.
The overall sound or musical effect of the pattern of words and sentences.
Run - on sentence
A sentence in which independent clauses have been run together without punctuation (a period, semicolon, or comma). Sometimes no punctuation is used at all, but other times there is just a, between the two thoughts.
Sharp, biting language intended to ridicule its subject.
A form of writing that exposes and ready tales of subject with the hope of bringing about change.
Second - person point of view
A narrative from the you, your, or yours perspective.
Symbol (;) used to separate independent clauses. This includes independent clauses that are joined without a conjunction, independent clauses that contain, even if the clauses are joined by a conjunction, an independent clauses connected with a conjunctive adverb, such as: every Friday we go out for dinner and see a movie movie; it is our reward for a long week at work.
An incomplete sentence segment that is lacking either a subject or a predicate. Also called an incomplete sentence. To correct a fragment, add the missing subject or verb or otherwise change the sentence to complete the thought.
Incomplete: Which is simply not true. (No subject: which is not a subject.)
Complete: That is simply not true.
The order in which events happen over time. For example, some writing describes events chronologically: in the same order that they occurred in real life (or in the make-believe world of a novel or a short story).
The time and place in which a story unfolds.
A type of figurative language that compares two things using like or as. Examples:
As blind as a bat.
His smile is like a ray of sunshine.
My puppy Waldo is as sweet as a teddy bear.
Running errands for my boss is as much fun as going to the dentist.
Simple past tense
The verb form that expresses what happened to a specific moment in the past. Examples:
It rained for three hours yesterday.
She opened the door and welcomed the guests.
Julio ate an entire pizza last night.
The town that results when there is incongruity between what is expected to happen and what actually occurs.
Simple present tense
The verb form that communicates fax or indicates that something occurs on a regular basis.
The assistance commute to work on the subway, but their boss takes a limo.
I commute to work every morning on the subway. She speaks English.
I am from Philadelphia.
Angela, a speech made by a character who reveals his or her thoughts to the audience as if he or she is alone in thinking aloud.
A poem composed of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter, with a specific rhyme scheme.
In poetry, the voice of narrator of the poem.
In JAMA, the instructions provided by the playwright that explain how the action should be staged, including directions for props, costumes, lighting, tone, and character movements.
A group of lines in a poem; a poetic paragraph.
The manner in which a work of literature is organized; its order of arrangement and divisions.
The manner in which a text is written, composed of word choice, sentence structure, and level of formality and detail.
A category within a larger category.
Someone or something that performs the action or serves as the main focus of a sentence. The subject of a sentence can be singular or compound(plural):
I slept all day. Kendrick and I worked all night.
Subject - verb agreement
The real that states that the subject in a clause - the person or thing doing the action - must match the Vera band number. For example, if the subject is singular, the verb must be singular; if the subject is plural, the verb must be plural. Example:
Incorrect: That boxer don't have a chance against Carl.
Correct: that boxer doesn't have a chance against Carl.
Incorrect: the jury have left the courtroom to make their decision.
Correct: the jury has left the courtroom to make its decision.
A group of words that has both a subject and a verb but (unlike an independent clause) cannot stand alone as a sentence. Also known as a dependent clause.
Words used to connect clauses, such as after, because, and unless.
A set of specific facts and ideas that explain and support the main idea of a piece of writing. These details provide you with a more complete picture of what the author is trying to say.
- mail that used to take months to move by horse and foot now moves around the country in days or hours by truck, train, and plane.
- Priority Mail is guaranteed to go anywhere in the United States in two days or less.
The state of anxiety caused by an undecided or unresolved situation.
A person, place, or object invested with special meaning to represent something else.
The overall meaning or idea of a literary work.
The main idea of a nonfiction text.
The sentence(s) that expresses an author's thesis.
Third - person point of view
A narrative told from the he, she, or it perspective.
A writer's emotional attitude toward the subject or audience. The mood or attitude conveyed by writing or voice. Some common words used to describe tone:
The sentence in a paragraph that expresses the main idea of that paragraph.
A play that presents a character's fall due to a tragic flaw.
The characteristic of a hero in a tragedy that causes his or her downfall.
The character and a tragedy who falls from greatness and accept responsibility for that fall.
A tragic play that includes comic scenes.
A statement that is deliberately restrained.
A word or phrase that explains an action.
- she yelled out the window.
- I am happy to be here.
- I should ask Winston what he thinks.
When the intended meaning of a word or phrase is the opposite of its expressed meaning. For example, "it's as pleasant as a root canal" implies that what ever occurred was not pleasant at all.
In nonfiction, the sound of the office speaking directly to the reader.
Who vs whom
Used to when your pronoun is referring to the subject of a clause. Use whom when your pronoun is referring to the object of a clause.
Incorrect: Ms. Dee is the teacher who always ask for advice.
Correct: Ms. Dee is the teacher whom I always ask for advice.
Incorrect: I'll play chess with whoever.
Correct: I'll play chess with whomever.
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