Pediatrics Integumentary Disorders
Terms in this set (57)
most common type of shock in children
flat; nonpalpable; circumscribed; less than 1 cm in diameter; brown, red, purple, white, or tan in color
elevated; palpable; firm; circumscribed; less than 1 cm in diameter; brown, red, pink, tan, or bluish red in color
elevated; circumscribed; superficial; filled with serous fluid; less than 1 cm in diameter
Wheal (bug bite)
elevated; irregularly shaped area of cutaneous edema; solid, transient, changing, variable diameter; pale pink, lighter center
dried serum, blood, etc, slightly elevated; size varied; red, black, tan, or straw color
Lichenification (chronic dermatitis)
rough, thickened epidermis; accentuated skin markings caused by rubbing or irritation; often involves flexor aspect of extremity
Keloid (burn scar)
irregularly shaped, elevated, progressively enlarging scar; grows beyond boundaries of wound; caused by excessive collagen formation during healing
a rosy, maculopapular rash
Papules progressing to vesicles, then painless pustules with a narrow erythematous border.
Honey-colored exudate when the vesicles or pustules rupture, which forms a crust on the ulcer-like base.
Nonbullous impetigo treatment
Treat topically with mupirocin ointment.
If numerous lesions, oral cephalosporins.
Remove honey-colored crust with cool compresses BID.
Red macules and bullous eruptions on an erythematous base.
Bullous impetigo treatment
Oral cephalosporins. Good hygiene.
Red, raised hair follicles.
Warm compresses after washing with soap and water several times a day.
Localized reaction: erythema, pain, edema, warmth at site of skin disruption.
Mild cases: cephalexin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid
Severe cases: IV cephalosporins
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Flattish bullae that ruptures within hours.
Red, weeping surface is left, most commonly on face, groin, neck, and axillary region.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome treatment
Mild: oral cephalexin, dicoxacillin, or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid.
Severe: treatment similar to burns with aggressive fluid management and IV oxacillin or clindamycin.
Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome
Fungal infections on the feet
Fungal infections on the arms or legs
Fungal infections on the trunk and extremities
Fungal infections on the scalp, eyebrows, or eyelashes
Fungal infections on the groin
Acute hypersensitivity reactions
Diaper dermatitis, contact dermatitis, erythema multiforme, and urticaria
Chronic hypersensitivity disorder
Seborrhea and psoriasis
Chronic hypersensitivity skin disorders not from hypersensitivity
Contact Dermatitis Causes
Response to an antigenic substance exposure.
Allergy to nickel or cobalt.
Exposure to highly allergenic plants.
Contact Dermatitis Complications
Secondary bacterial skin infection.
Lichenification or hyperpigmentation.
Chronic disorder, extreme pruritis, inflamed, erythemic, swollen skin triggered by food or environmental allergens.
Eryrthema multiforme rash
Acute self-limiting hypersensitivity reaction; multiple appearing lesions; rare
Stevens-Johnsons syndrome s/s
same as eryrthema multiforme with inflammatory bullae on at least 2 types of mucosa
Stevens-Johnsons syndrome treatment
hospitalization, isolation, fluid and electrolyte support, ophthalmologic consult
hives type I hypersensitivity - mast cell histamine release
Eryrthema multiforme s/s
rash, fever, malaise, achiness, ichiness, burning
Chronic inflammatory dermatitis - scalp and skin
thick, greasy, yellow scales
infant: mineral oil, gentle brush
adolescents: daily anti-dandruff shampoo
no pruritits, scales, & plaques -scalp, elbows, genital area, kness
skin hydration, UV light, tar preps, topical retinoids
primarily noninflammatory lesions (comedones)
comedones plus inflammatory lesions such as papules or pustules (only face or back)
Lesions similar to moderate acne, but more widespread, and or presence of cysts or nodules. Scarring.
damage & increased vessel permeability, fluid volume shift outs, electrolyte shift
Burn therapeutic management
fluid resuscitation, wound care, prevent infection, restoration of function
involves only epidermal injury; heal without scarring in 4-5 days
Partial thick burn
involves epidermis and portions of dermis; heal with minimal scarring in about 2 weeks
Deep partial thickness burn
take longer to heal; may scar; result in changes in nail, hair, and sebaceous gland function
Full thickness burn
result in significant tissue damage and extend through epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis; extensive scarring results; significant time to heal needed
IV med given during the first 24 hours for burn victims
first 8 hours
administer the most volume for burn victims
fiery red lesions, scaling in the skin folds, and satellite lesions (located further out from the main rash)
diaper candidiasis treatment
topical nystatin with diaper changes for several days
inflammatory reaction; flat red rash in the convex skin creases
diaper dermatitis treatment
topical products such as ointments or creams containing vitamins A, D, and E; zinc oxide; or petrolatum are helped to provide a barrier