Tissue that is specialized to cover the inner and outer surfaces of the internal organs is called
Connective tissues include
-tendons that connect muscle to bone
-the layer beneath your skin that connects the skin to muscle
From the smallest functional units to the largest, the body is organized as follows
cell, tissue, organ, system, body
Which of the following is a function of both the excretory system and the digestive system?
Refer to the illustration above 14. The material labeled "1," which fills the center and spaces at the ends of bones and produces blood cells, is called
What is the difference between cartilage and bone?
Bone contains significant mineral deposits between its cells, while cartilage does not.
Refer to the illustration above 25. The elbow, a pivot joint that allows your hand to turn over, is shown in diagram
can change the diameter of blood vessels.
moves food through the digestive tract
is not under conscious control.
It has been known for a long time that muscle contraction requires ATP. Recently, scientists have discovered that ATP is required in order for the muscle filaments actin and myosin to slide past each other, resulting in muscle contraction. The ATP is specifically required to release the attachments between actin and myosin in the many cycles of attachment, release, and reattachment that result in sliding of these filaments past each other. Which of the following phenomena is explained by this specific role of ATP?
stiffening of a body after death (rigor mortis)
The total amount of force that a muscle exerts
depends on the total number of individual muscle fibers that have been stimulated
The origin of a muscle
-is at the opposite end of the muscle from the insertion.
-is located on a bone that remains stationary when the muscle contracts.
-does not move when the muscle contracts.
The functions of the skin include
defense against microbes.
prevention of dehydration.
regulation of body temperature.
Refer to the illustration above 52. Which of the following structures is used to eliminate wastes and help regulate body temperature?
Refer to the illustration above 52. Which of the structures in the diagram are composed mainly of dead cells?
2 and 8
Refer to the illustration above 58. The vessels labeled "2" carry deoxygenated blood. The vessels are
the pulmonary arteries
The pressure exerted on the inner walls of the arteries when the heart relaxes between beats is the ____ pressure.
Atherosclerosis is characterized by
a narrowing of the inner walls of coronary arteries due to buildup of fatty materials.
Defending the body against bacterial infection and invasion by foreign substances is a function of
white blood cells
Which of the following is not involved in the formation of blood clots?
formation of fibrin-red blood cell complexes that circulate in the blood and are too large to move through ruptured blood-vessel walls
A person with antigen A on their red blood cells can give blood to someone with blood type(s)
A and AB
Gas exchange occurs when
-oxygen in the alveoli diffuses into the blood in the capillaries.
-oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
-the red blood cells give up oxygen to the cells of the body tissues.
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in all of the following ways except
by white blood cells.
Which of the following occurs as air rushes into the lungs from the environment to equalize air pressure?
The breathing center in the brain is most sensitive to the
concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Which of the following is the final step in using Koch's postulates to demonstrate that a particular agent causes a disease?
An animal infected by injecting the suspected disease agent from an animal with the disease is found to also have the disease agent in its tissues, because a pathogen cultured from the second animal is found to be the same as the pathogen cultured from the first.
Which of the following is true about the release of histamine from cells in nasal passages?
It occurs during an allergic reaction.
It causes nearby capillaries to swell.
It may cause increased secretion by mucous membranes
The body's first line of defense against infection includes all of the following except
-are moist epithelial layers that are impermeable to most pathogens.
-line the nasal passages, mouth, lungs, digestive tract, urethra, and vagina.
-contain glands that secrete mucus, a sticky fluid that traps pathogens
Mucus is produced by the cells lining the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles
to protect against microbes that might be inhaled.
The stomach is involved in defense against infection by
containing acids that destroy potential pathogens that are swallowed.
When the inflammatory response is triggered,
-damaged or infected cells release chemical alarm signals.
-more fluid than normal leaks from capillaries near the injury, and swelling results.
-white blood cells attack invading pathogens.
When a puncture wound becomes infected,
-damaged cells release chemicals that promote the immune response.
-the temperature around the wound increases.
-white blood cells move into the injured area.
The redness and swelling associated with an inflammatory response is caused by
expansion of local blood vessels
White blood cells that engulf invading microbes and cellular debris resulting from microbial attacks are called
Refer to the illustration above 121. During which time period are the first antibodies to the pathogen produced?
Refer to the illustration above 121. Which time period would be characterized by the most rapid division of B cells?
Once stimulated by antigens on the surface of macrophages, helper T cells may
stimulate B cells to divide and develop into plasma cells.
The role of helper T cells in immune responses is to
activate two different types of immune system cells.
Cytotoxic T cells recognize cells that have been infected by viruses
because the infected cells have the pathogen's antigens on their surfaces
All of the following are white blood cells that are involved in immune responses except
Which of the following pairs is incorrectly associated?
B cells—engulf cells that are infected with microbes
sometimes remain in the blood for years.
are stimulated by helper T cells.
After the initial immune response subsides, B cells that patrol body tissues for long periods of time
are called memory cells.
Refer to the illustration above 133. The most likely reason for Response II being greater than Response I is that
memory cells were produced during Response I.
pathogenic bacteria and viruses : enemies of humans ::
cytotoxic T cells and B cells : white blood cells
Secondary exposure to a pathogen
-results in very rapid production of antibodies.
-stimulates memory cells to divide quickly.
-may result in destruction of the pathogen before a person knows he or she is infected.
John and James are identical twins. During the summer following their fifteenth birthday, they went on a vacation and stayed in a cabin with two of their cousins. One of the cousins came down with chicken pox during the vacation. Chicken pox is caused by a virus. Two weeks later, John came down with chicken pox. James, however, never developed any symptoms of the disease. Which of the following is the best explanation for the different responses John and James had to exposure to the same disease?
James had been exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age and developed the disease. His body produced memory cells that protected him from further infections of the disease. John did not get exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age.
Which of the following is true about the release of histamine from cells in the nasal passages?
-It occurs during an allergic reaction.
-It causes nearby capillaries to swell
-It may cause increased secretion by mucous membranes.
Which of the following describes the actions of HIV?
HIV attacks and cripples the immune system.
HIV invades macrophages and helper T cells.
HIV kills large numbers of helper T cells.
A person infected with HIV may
develop the disease called AIDS.
have viruses reproducing in helper T cells.
be more susceptible to a variety of pathogens.
The debilitating effects of AIDS are due to inability of the immune system to
activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
produce antibodies against pathogens.
recognize and destroy infected cells.
HIV can be transmitted
-through sexual intercourse with an infected person.
-by the transfer of body fluids containing HIV or HIV-infected cells.
-by sharing contaminated hypodermic needles and syringes.
Which of the following is used to determine whether a person has been infected with HIV?
determining whether the person has antibodies to HIV in his or her blood
Which of the following explains why HIV evolves rapidly?
The genes that code for its surface proteins mutate rapidly.
Refer to the illustration above 154. Most of the energy in the molecule shown is stored in the
Refer to the illustration above 154. The structure shown is most likely a portion of a
the function of the digestive system is to
chemically break down food.
mechanically break apart food.
absorb nutrient materials.
Refer to the illustration above 166. Most of the products of digestion are absorbed into the circulatory system from which structure?
The wavelike contractions of muscle that move food through the digestive system are called
Refer to the illustration above 175. This structure allows for an increase in
nutrient absorption area.
The kidneys play a major role in maintaining
homeostasis by removing urea, water, and other wastes from the blood.
Refer to the illustration above 183. The structure shown in the diagram is the basic unit of the
The filtrate removed from the blood by the kidneys might contain
salts, amino acids, glucose, and urea.
Which of the following filtrates is not reabsorbed in significant quantities back into the bloodstream by the nephrons?