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192 terms

Biology Final Review 3

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Tissue that is specialized to cover the inner and outer surfaces of the internal organs is called
epithelial tissue
Tightly connected cells that are arranged in flat sheets are characteristic of
epithelial tissue
Blood, bone, and cartilage are examples of
connective tissue
Connective tissues include
-tendons that connect muscle to bone
-the layer beneath your skin that connects the skin to muscle
-fat
From the smallest functional units to the largest, the body is organized as follows
cell, tissue, organ, system, body
Organs that work together form
organ systems
The heart and the blood vessels are separate organs that form the
cardiovascular system
Which of the following is a function of both the excretory system and the digestive system?
eliminating wastes
The lungs are located in the
thoracic cavity
Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?
the pelvis
Yellow bone marrow
provides an energy reserve.
The type of bone that provides the greatest strength for support is
compact bone
The periosteum is a section of the bone that contains
blood vessels
Refer to the illustration above 14. Which of the following is the compact bone?
2
Refer to the illustration above 14. The material labeled "1," which fills the center and spaces at the ends of bones and produces blood cells, is called
marrow
Refer to the illustration above 14. Structure 3 is a
blood vessel
The heart and lungs are protected by the
rib cage
A person with a broken pelvis would probably be unable to
walk
compact bone : periosteum ::
marrow : compact bone
human skeleton : internal organs ::
construction worker's hard hat : construction worker's head
In a fetus, most bones are originally made of
cartilage
What is the difference between cartilage and bone?
Bone contains significant mineral deposits between its cells, while cartilage does not.
Ligaments attach
bone to bone
The point where two or more bones meet is called a
joint
Refer to the illustration above 25. Joint 1 is an example of a
ball-and-socket joint
Refer to the illustration above 25. Joint 4 would most likely be found in the
knee
Refer to the illustration above 25. Which joint allows bones to glide over each other?
3
Refer to the illustration above 25. The elbow, a pivot joint that allows your hand to turn over, is shown in diagram
2
Degeneration of cartilage causes
osteoarthritis
The three types of muscles are
skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
Smooth muscle
can change the diameter of blood vessels.
moves food through the digestive tract
is not under conscious control.
Smooth muscle can be found
in internal organs
The region between Z lines is called the
sarcomere
Actin and myosin
are found in the sarcomeres.
are proteins.
interact during muscle contraction
Repeating units of myosin and actin filaments bound by two Z lines are
sarcomeres
It has been known for a long time that muscle contraction requires ATP. Recently, scientists have discovered that ATP is required in order for the muscle filaments actin and myosin to slide past each other, resulting in muscle contraction. The ATP is specifically required to release the attachments between actin and myosin in the many cycles of attachment, release, and reattachment that result in sliding of these filaments past each other. Which of the following phenomena is explained by this specific role of ATP?
stiffening of a body after death (rigor mortis)
The total amount of force that a muscle exerts
depends on the total number of individual muscle fibers that have been stimulated
Muscle tissue functions to move
blood.
bones.
food in the digestive tract.
Tendons connect
muscle to bone
A muscle can
pull a bone
Muscles that bend joints are categorized as
flexors
Muscles exert force by
pulling on surrounding tissues
The insertion of a muscle
... none of the above
The origin of a muscle
-is at the opposite end of the muscle from the insertion.
-is located on a bone that remains stationary when the muscle contracts.
-does not move when the muscle contracts.
flexors : bend ::
extensors : straighten
The skin performs all of the following except
production of chemical messengers.
The functions of the skin include
defense against microbes.
prevention of dehydration.
regulation of body temperature.
Energy reserves are stored in the skin as
fat cells
Keratin
is a protein
The thin outer layer of the skin is
the epidermis
The dermis of the skin is
involved in temperature regulation.
Refer to the illustration above 52. Which of the following structures is used to eliminate wastes and help regulate body temperature?
7
Refer to the illustration above 52. Which of the structures in the diagram are composed mainly of dead cells?
2 and 8
Refer to the illustration above 52. The portion of the skin labeled "1"
is the dermis
nail root : nails ::
hair follicle : hair
A skin disorder caused by blockage of oil glands is called
acne
The ventricles are
the chambers of the heart that pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body
Refer to the illustration above 58. Structure 4 is
the right atrium
Refer to the illustration above 58. The aorta is structure
3
Refer to the illustration above 58. The vessels labeled "2" carry deoxygenated blood. The vessels are
the pulmonary arteries
Refer to the illustration above 58. Blood in chamber 1
is full of oxygen.
Vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called
arteries
The heart chamber that receives blood from the venae cavae is the
right atrium
Blood entering the right atrium
is deoxygenated.
Oxygenated blood from the lungs is received by the
left atrium.
Which type of blood vessel is both strong and elastic?
artery
An artery has a much thicker muscle layer than
a vein.
a venule.
a capillary
The smallest and most numerous blood vessels in the body are the
capillaries.
An artery
usually carries oxygen-rich blood
If a blood vessel has valves, it is probably
a vein
The force exerted against the arterial walls when the heart contracts is called
systolic pressure
Normal blood pressure in millimeters of mercury is
120/80 for males and 110/70 for females
The pressure exerted on the inner walls of the arteries when the heart relaxes between beats is the ____ pressure.
diastolic
Pulmonary circulation is the flow of blood to and from the
lungs
Atherosclerosis is characterized by
a narrowing of the inner walls of coronary arteries due to buildup of fatty materials.
cholesterol buildup : atherosclerosis ::
atherosclerosis : heart attacks
The iron-containing molecule in red blood cells is called
hemoglobin.
Mature red blood cells
do not have a nucleus.
Infections generally result in an increase in the number of
leukocytes
Red blood cells
transport respiratory gases
Defending the body against bacterial infection and invasion by foreign substances is a function of
white blood cells
Refer to the illustration above 82. These cells are
red blood cells
Refer to the illustration above 82. These cells
contain hemoglobin
nutrients, salts, and proteins : plasma solutes ::
erythrocytes and leukocytes : blood cells
An abnormality involving the platelets would probably affect the process of
blood clotting.
Which of the following is not involved in the formation of blood clots?
formation of fibrin-red blood cell complexes that circulate in the blood and are too large to move through ruptured blood-vessel walls
A person with antigen A on their red blood cells can give blood to someone with blood type(s)
A and AB
Refer to the illustration above 88. The structure labeled "X" is the
trachea
During swallowing, the air passageway of the pharynx is covered by the
epiglottis
Alveoli in the lungs are connected to the bronchi by a network of tiny tubes called
bronchioles
bronchiole : alveoli ::
bronchi : bronchioles
The actual exchange of gases occurs at the site of the
alveoli
Each alveolus
is surrounded by capillaries
Gas exchange occurs when
-oxygen in the alveoli diffuses into the blood in the capillaries.
-oxygen binds with hemoglobin in the red blood cells.
-the red blood cells give up oxygen to the cells of the body tissues.
carbon dioxide : lungs ::
nitrogenous waste : kidneys
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in all of the following ways except
by white blood cells.
When the diaphragm and rib cage muscles relax,
expiration occurs
The dome-shaped muscle below the chest cavity is called the
diaphragm.
Which of the following occurs as air rushes into the lungs from the environment to equalize air pressure?
inspiration
The breathing center in the brain is most sensitive to the
concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.
Which of the following is the final step in using Koch's postulates to demonstrate that a particular agent causes a disease?
An animal infected by injecting the suspected disease agent from an animal with the disease is found to also have the disease agent in its tissues, because a pathogen cultured from the second animal is found to be the same as the pathogen cultured from the first.
Which of the following is true about the release of histamine from cells in nasal passages?
It occurs during an allergic reaction.
It causes nearby capillaries to swell.
It may cause increased secretion by mucous membranes
The body's first line of defense against infection includes all of the following except
interleukin-1
The skin repels pathogens by
functioning as a barrier AND using chemical defenses.
Mucous membranes
line internal body surfaces that are in contact with the environment
Mucous membranes
-are moist epithelial layers that are impermeable to most pathogens.
-line the nasal passages, mouth, lungs, digestive tract, urethra, and vagina.
-contain glands that secrete mucus, a sticky fluid that traps pathogens
The first line of defense against infection includes
mucous membranes.
All of the following have mucous membranes except
the surface of the skin
Mucus is produced by the cells lining the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles
to protect against microbes that might be inhaled.
The stomach is involved in defense against infection by
containing acids that destroy potential pathogens that are swallowed.
Which of the following is (are) a nonspecific defense against pathogens?
the inflammatory response
When the inflammatory response is triggered,
-damaged or infected cells release chemical alarm signals.
-more fluid than normal leaks from capillaries near the injury, and swelling results.
-white blood cells attack invading pathogens.
When a puncture wound becomes infected,
-damaged cells release chemicals that promote the immune response.
-the temperature around the wound increases.
-white blood cells move into the injured area.
The redness and swelling associated with an inflammatory response is caused by
expansion of local blood vessels
Phagocytes, such as macrophages
ingest and destroy pathogens
White blood cells that engulf invading microbes and cellular debris resulting from microbial attacks are called
macrophages
Which of the following engulfs foreign cells?
a macrophage
neutrophils : ingesting pathogens ::
natural killer cells : puncturing membranes of infected cells
Moderate fevers (below 103°F)
inhibit the growth of pathogens and stimulate macrophage action.
Which of the following is (are) not part of the immune system?
alveoli
Refer to the illustration above 121. During which time period are the first antibodies to the pathogen produced?
B
Refer to the illustration above 121. Which time period would be characterized by the most rapid division of B cells?
C
Antibodies
help destroy microbes that invade the body.
Once stimulated by antigens on the surface of macrophages, helper T cells may
stimulate B cells to divide and develop into plasma cells.
The role of helper T cells in immune responses is to
activate two different types of immune system cells.
Cytotoxic T cells recognize cells that have been infected by viruses
because the infected cells have the pathogen's antigens on their surfaces
All of the following are white blood cells that are involved in immune responses except
megakaryocytes.
Which of the following pairs is incorrectly associated?
B cells—engulf cells that are infected with microbes
When B cells encounter a pathogen, they
divide and produce large amounts of antibody.
A few B cells that have encountered a pathogen
become memory cells.
B cells
sometimes remain in the blood for years.
secrete antibodies.
are stimulated by helper T cells.
After the initial immune response subsides, B cells that patrol body tissues for long periods of time
are called memory cells.
Refer to the illustration above 133. The most likely reason for Response II being greater than Response I is that
memory cells were produced during Response I.
pathogenic bacteria and viruses : enemies of humans ::
cytotoxic T cells and B cells : white blood cells
macrophages : helper T cells ::
helper T cells : cytotoxic T cells and B cells
Vaccines are effective in preventing disease because they
Trigger antibody formation.
Secondary exposure to a pathogen
-results in very rapid production of antibodies.
-stimulates memory cells to divide quickly.
-may result in destruction of the pathogen before a person knows he or she is infected.
All vaccines are produced from killed or weakened
pathogens
John and James are identical twins. During the summer following their fifteenth birthday, they went on a vacation and stayed in a cabin with two of their cousins. One of the cousins came down with chicken pox during the vacation. Chicken pox is caused by a virus. Two weeks later, John came down with chicken pox. James, however, never developed any symptoms of the disease. Which of the following is the best explanation for the different responses John and James had to exposure to the same disease?
James had been exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age and developed the disease. His body produced memory cells that protected him from further infections of the disease. John did not get exposed to chicken pox at an earlier age.
A misdirected immune system response against a harmless antigen is called
an allergic reaction
Autoimmune diseases occur when
the immune system attacks the organism's own cells
An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks myelinated nerves is
multiple sclerosis
Which of the following is true about the release of histamine from cells in the nasal passages?
-It occurs during an allergic reaction.
-It causes nearby capillaries to swell
-It may cause increased secretion by mucous membranes.
Which of the following describes the actions of HIV?
HIV attacks and cripples the immune system.
HIV invades macrophages and helper T cells.
HIV kills large numbers of helper T cells.
Scientists think that practically everyone infected with HIV
will eventually develop AIDS.
A person infected with HIV may
develop the disease called AIDS.
have viruses reproducing in helper T cells.
be more susceptible to a variety of pathogens.
HIV causes AIDS by attacking and destroying
helper T cells.
The debilitating effects of AIDS are due to inability of the immune system to
activate B cells and cytotoxic T cells.
produce antibodies against pathogens.
recognize and destroy infected cells.
HIV can be transmitted
-through sexual intercourse with an infected person.
-by the transfer of body fluids containing HIV or HIV-infected cells.
-by sharing contaminated hypodermic needles and syringes.
Which of the following is used to determine whether a person has been infected with HIV?
determining whether the person has antibodies to HIV in his or her blood
Which of the following explains why HIV evolves rapidly?
The genes that code for its surface proteins mutate rapidly.
Nutrients provide the body with the energy and materials it needs for
growth.
repair.
maintenance
All essential amino acids
must be obtained from the foods we eat.
Refer to the illustration above 154. Most of the energy in the molecule shown is stored in the
carbon-hydrogen bonds.
Refer to the illustration above 154. The structure shown is most likely a portion of a
fat molecule.
Vitamin K
is soluble in fat.
is found in green vegetables.
assists with blood clotting.
Vitamins are organic compounds that
help activate enzymes during chemical reactions
Excessive amounts of vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E, and K
can be harmful.
Brain cells and red blood cells receive most of their energy directly from
glucose.
Most of the body's energy needs should be supplied by dietary
carbohydrates.
The first portion of the small intestine is the
duodenum.
The pharynx is
located in the back of the throat.
Which of the following provides a passage for both food and air?
the pharynx
the function of the digestive system is to
chemically break down food.
mechanically break apart food.
absorb nutrient materials.
small intestine : large intestine ::
esophagus : stomach
Refer to the illustration above 166. What is the name of structure 5?
stomach
Refer to the illustration above 166. Most of the products of digestion are absorbed into the circulatory system from which structure?
4
Chemical digestion occurs as a result of the action of
hydrochloric acid.
saliva.
pepsin.
The wavelike contractions of muscle that move food through the digestive system are called
peristalsis.
Enzymes in saliva begin the chemical digestion of
carbohydrates
Pepsin and hydrochloric acid in the stomach begin the digestion of
protein
Bile
breaks down globules of fat into tiny droplets.
Fat molecules are broken down into fatty acids by
enzymes.
pancreas : enzymes for small intestine ::
liver : bile
Refer to the illustration above 175. Structure 1 is a(n)
villus
Refer to the illustration above 175. This structure is found in the
small intestine.
Refer to the illustration above 175. This structure allows for an increase in
nutrient absorption area.
Refer to the illustration above. Structure 2 is
a capillary
The villi of the small intestine allow for an increase in the rate of
nutrient absorption.
Urea is formed in the
liver
The kidneys play a major role in maintaining
homeostasis by removing urea, water, and other wastes from the blood.
The basic functional unit of the kidney is the
nephron.
Refer to the illustration above 183. The structure shown in the diagram is a(n)
nephron.
Refer to the illustration above 183. At the location labeled "X,"
filtration is taking place.
Refer to the illustration above 183. The structure shown in the diagram is the basic unit of the
kidney.
The filtrate removed from the blood by the kidneys might contain
salts, amino acids, glucose, and urea.
Urine, when compared with the initial filtrate, contains
less water, fewer minerals, and more urea.
Ammonia is converted to urea because
urea is less toxic to the body.
The first stage of urine formation is called
filtration.
Which of the following filtrates is not reabsorbed in significant quantities back into the bloodstream by the nephrons?
urea
Urine leaves the body through the
urethra.
ureter : urinary bladder ::
urinary bladder : urethra