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45 terms

Western Civilization I, Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Heavy Plow
part of the agricultural revolution; improved planting efficiency
Collar Harness
part of the agricultural revolution; improved planting efficiency
Three Field System
part of the agricultural revolution; farming technique that left one field out of three sallow for a year to replenish the soil
Bourgeoisie
townspeople not attached to land
Guilds
groups of artisans sharing similar hours, wages, products and prices
Common Law
law system developed by judges sharing case files with each other
The Doomsday Book
book of taxes
Muhammad
born in Mecca, founder of Islam
Mecca
birthplace of Muhammad, holiest site in Islam
Medina
town to which Muhammad and his followers fled to escape persecution
Hijra
the flight to Medina
The Quran
the transcription of Muhammad's revelations from the angel Gabriel
Ali
Muhammad's nephew and one of Islam's leaders after his death
Seljuk Turks
invaded Asia Minor preceeding the First Crusade
Urban II
requested the First Crusade, against the Seljuk Turks
Clermont
site at which Urban II requested the First Crusade
Peter the Hermit
persecuted Jews during the Peoples' Crusade
Simony
the purchasing of church offices
Investiture
the practice of giving authority symbols to church officials
Excommunication
being cut off from the church
Gregory VII
strong advocate of increased papal power
Henry IV
challenged Pope Gregory VII
University of Paris
specialized in theology, salaries paid by the church
University of Bologna
specialized in law, salaries paid by students
Courtly Love
relationship between a knight and his mistress, an essential element in the Romance stories
Chivalry
code of conduct and honor for a knight
Tournaments
started out as brutal and dangerous, later became more refined and like a game
Romances
love stories about knights
Romanesque Architecture
characterized by huge, thick stone walls with small windows
Gothic Architecture
characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows
Bubonic Plague
symptoms began with black pustules on the skin, followed by internal hemorrhaging, then usually death
Rat Flea
the carrier of the Bubonic Plage, and a hardy survivor that can live in almost any conditions
Flagellant Movement
the practice of beating oneself with whips to drive out evil
Edward III
laid claim to the French throne, began the Hundred Years' War
Joan of Arc
peasant French girl, saw visions and led the French army to victories
The Long Bow
crucial element in England's victory over France in the Hundred Years' War
Jacquerie
peasant revolt in France
Philip IV
taxed clergy to pay for a war; after much conflict with the Pope, he called the Estates General to request support
Boniface VIII
Pope that struggled against Philip IV
Babylonian Captivity
when Clement V remained in France and established the seat of the papacy in Avignon
The Conciliar Movement
refers to the election of two separate popes by the Council of Pisa and the Council of Constantine
The Great Schism
developed after the Conciliar Movement, refers to the time when there were two separate churches and popes
John Wycliffe
disagreed with much church doctrine; advocated the translation of the Bible
Dante
Italian satirist, wrote "The Divine Comedy,"
The Divine Comedy
satirical poem composed by Dante, an allegorical description of hell