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Heavy Plow

part of the agricultural revolution; improved planting efficiency

Collar Harness

part of the agricultural revolution; improved planting efficiency

Three Field System

part of the agricultural revolution; farming technique that left one field out of three sallow for a year to replenish the soil


townspeople not attached to land


groups of artisans sharing similar hours, wages, products and prices

Common Law

law system developed by judges sharing case files with each other

The Doomsday Book

book of taxes


born in Mecca, founder of Islam


birthplace of Muhammad, holiest site in Islam


town to which Muhammad and his followers fled to escape persecution


the flight to Medina

The Quran

the transcription of Muhammad's revelations from the angel Gabriel


Muhammad's nephew and one of Islam's leaders after his death

Seljuk Turks

invaded Asia Minor preceeding the First Crusade

Urban II

requested the First Crusade, against the Seljuk Turks


site at which Urban II requested the First Crusade

Peter the Hermit

persecuted Jews during the Peoples' Crusade


the purchasing of church offices


the practice of giving authority symbols to church officials


being cut off from the church

Gregory VII

strong advocate of increased papal power

Henry IV

challenged Pope Gregory VII

University of Paris

specialized in theology, salaries paid by the church

University of Bologna

specialized in law, salaries paid by students

Courtly Love

relationship between a knight and his mistress, an essential element in the Romance stories


code of conduct and honor for a knight


started out as brutal and dangerous, later became more refined and like a game


love stories about knights

Romanesque Architecture

characterized by huge, thick stone walls with small windows

Gothic Architecture

characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows

Bubonic Plague

symptoms began with black pustules on the skin, followed by internal hemorrhaging, then usually death

Rat Flea

the carrier of the Bubonic Plage, and a hardy survivor that can live in almost any conditions

Flagellant Movement

the practice of beating oneself with whips to drive out evil

Edward III

laid claim to the French throne, began the Hundred Years' War

Joan of Arc

peasant French girl, saw visions and led the French army to victories

The Long Bow

crucial element in England's victory over France in the Hundred Years' War


peasant revolt in France

Philip IV

taxed clergy to pay for a war; after much conflict with the Pope, he called the Estates General to request support

Boniface VIII

Pope that struggled against Philip IV

Babylonian Captivity

when Clement V remained in France and established the seat of the papacy in Avignon

The Conciliar Movement

refers to the election of two separate popes by the Council of Pisa and the Council of Constantine

The Great Schism

developed after the Conciliar Movement, refers to the time when there were two separate churches and popes

John Wycliffe

disagreed with much church doctrine; advocated the translation of the Bible


Italian satirist, wrote "The Divine Comedy,"

The Divine Comedy

satirical poem composed by Dante, an allegorical description of hell

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