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Psych Study Guide #1
Terms in this set (12)
Be able to state the four themes related to psychology's subject matter. Be able to give a one sentence explanation of what each theme means. (4 pts)
1. Behavior is determined by multiple causes- behavior is governed by multiple interacting factors including intelligence, reading and memory skills, motivation.
2. Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage: culture affects one because of the customs beliefs values norms influence who we are
3. Heredity and Environment Jointly Influence Behavior: Genes will be who we are but environment will influence those genes and can change how we act
4. People's Experience of the world is Subjective: How you see things, based on experience can change how you interpret and see things.
Drawing from the information from criticalthinking.org, the discussion of this content in class, and the information on critical thinking presented in the text, state three principles of critical thinking that you view as most important for your own guide for critical thinking. Provide a statement of why you see these three principles or processes as most important for you. Then give an example of a situation in which you were able to use these principles to enhance your thinking/decision process (or an example of a situation in which you wish you had used these principles to help yourself avoid reaching an erroneous conclusion.) (6 pts)
1. Able to identify Bias in themselves and others
2. Separate facts from opinion
To be a critical thinker you have to see beyond what is being stated, dissect all the factors and make your own opinion based of what you see to be true and right
After reading the section on Improving Academic Performance in the text, note what Crede & Kuncel (2008) found predicted college grades almost as well as admissions scores. Then, after reviewing all the actions or specific recommendations in this section, note which one is already a strength for you and, conversely, on which action or habit you could use some improvement and state a concrete action you could take to make this happen. (4 pts)
They found that it did predict college grades well, but it doesn't test study skills and attitudes towards subjects.
I usually find a place where i can study well
Schedule Schedule Schedule
Explain the concept of placebo effect, note a common misconception about the placebo effect, and briefly describe the findings of Wager, Scott, & Zubieta (2007) and Zubieta et al. (2005) regarding placebo effects. Finally, note how experiments can be designed to assess the magnitude of the placebo effect in a given study. ( 6 pts)
Idea that a fake treatment actually can help cure someone of their illness
Expectations can influence perceptions. Alcohol: some people showed signs of intoxication but they consumed no alcohol
****** experiments can be designed
Explain what is meant by anecdotal evidence. Note why anecdotes readily sway people's opinions, and then note two reasons why anecdotal evidence is flawed. Finally, to be an effective critical thinker, what type of decision making style is recommended? (6 pts)
People want to believe in something that will help them, like weight lose. People are vulnerable and a lot of anecdotal evidence is geared towards insecurities. Vivid and Memorable
Drawing from the lectures, describe how pseudoscience differs from real science. Then note the aspect of our thinking discussed in class that makes all of us vulnerable to pseudoscience. Finally describe three warning signs of pseudoscience that you think are important to keep in mind when taking in new information. (6 pts)
Not completely true statements
People want to hear what they think is happening
It is flawed because it lack safeguards and isn't supported by evidence
exaggerated claims, lack of self correction, talk of proof instead of evidence
Explain current thinking about the plasticity of the brain and how this plasticity may vary with age. Provide a one sentence description of each of the three lines of research that support this conclusion.(6 pts)
The brain can be easily molded when you are young and don't have any experience on the topic, but as you age you are affected by life and grow intellectually in your own thoughts and standards.
**** three lines of research
Explain the focus of the field of epigenetics and how this relates to our changing understanding of the interplay between heredity and environment. Illustrate your answer with the example of the development of schizophrenia as presented in the text and class or the example of anxiety disorders as discussed in class. (6 pts)
Epigenetics the study of genetic and environmental factors.
You can have a genetic disposition to anxiety disorders and other mental disorders, but the environment can cause it to set or help it turn off depending on the environment your in and how stressed your life situation is.
Explain the concepts of natural selection and adaptation and given an example of how an adaptation could offer an advantage in one environment but then, perhaps, become a disadvantage in a different environment. (6 pts)
Natural selection and adaptation go hand in hand, the better fit for the environment the better you will survive. Some animals adapt for one environment and thrive, but if they were moved to another would become weak and die off.
Explain the concept of extrapolation as a normal process in our thinking v. the problems created by overextrapolation. Note two ways in which reactions to the "Mozart Effect" represented an extreme example of overextrapolation and comment on how this connects with misinterpretation of the concept of critical periods in human beings. ( 8 pts)
going out of a set of data points
Describe the particular principles or aspects of perception used by Renaissance artists, French Impressionists like Seurat, and M. C. Escher to influence our perceptual experience. (6 pts)
they worked with color in unprecedented ways
they wanted to challenge viewers to think long and hard
Explain the concept of contrast effect as both a perceptual process relevant to visual perception and a process relevant to our social perceptions, giving an example of each. In your answer, be sure to explain the role of extreme comparators as these influence our perceptions. Then describe a personal example of how you have used the door-in-the-face technique on others or have had it used on you to influence your behavior. (8 pts)
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