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58 terms

Science Exam Review

Chapters 25 and 26
STUDY
PLAY
active
immunity.
allergy
an abnormal reaction of the body to an allergen.
antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
antigens
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
aorta
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
atria
the two upper chambers of the heart- the receiving areas that pool incoming blood.
cancer
uncontrolled cell growth
coronary artery
the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
erythrocytes
red blood cells
excretory system
the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
immunity
the quality of being unaffected by something
inferior vena cava
carries blood from lower regions of the body to right atrium
kidney
either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
landsteiner
blood typing
nephron
any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
open circulatory system
system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels
pacemaker
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
platelets
tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation
pericardium
membranous sac enclosing the heart
pulmonary vein
any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
recipient
a person who gets something
right atrium
the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
superior vena cava
carries blood from upper regions of the body to right atrium
systolic
measurement of blood pressure taken when the heart is contracting and forcing blood into the arteries
type 1 diabetes
the type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin; often diagnosed in childhood, although some cases arise in adulthood. formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes
ureter
either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra
duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
urinary bladder
a membranous sac for temporary retention of urine
urine analysis
qualitative and quantitative comparisons of urine to a set of standards
vaccine
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
ventricles
the two lower chambers of the heart, and they pump blood out to the lungs and body.
virus
(virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts
alimentary canal
digestive tube that extends from the mouth to the anus
alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
assimilation
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
bile
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
bronchi
two short branches located at the lower end of the trachea that carry air into the lungs.
epiglottis
a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing
esophagus
the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
glottis
mouth of windpipe
hydrochloric acid
an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
larynx
voice box
metabolic rate
rate of metabolism
metabolism
the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
mouth
express in speech
peristalsis
the process of wave-like muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
pharnyx
area at back of throat where mouth and nasal cavity meet
portal
a short vein that carries blood into the liver
stomach
an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal
thorax
part of an insect's body that bears the wings and legs, the part of the human body between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates
trachea
windpipe
villi
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine