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University of Iowa Anatomy Chapter 6 (Test 2)
Terms in this set (76)
Located throughout the body.
Cartilage grows in 2 ways
1) Appositional Growth
2) Interstitial Growth
Appositional Growth of Cartilage
Growth from the outside.
- Chondroblasts (cartilage forming cells) produce new tissue by secreting a matrix.
Interstitial Growth of Cartilage
Growth from within.
- Chondrocytes within the cartilage divide and secrete a new matrix
Several tissues that make up bone
2) Nervous Tissue
3) Blood Tissue
5) Epithelial Tissue
Primary Functions of Bone
4) Mineral Storage
5) Blood Cell Formation
Four classifications of bones
1) Long Bones
2) Short Bones
3) Flat Bones
4) Irregular Bones
Named for their shape, not their size.
- Most limb bones
- Wrist and Ankle bones
- Sesamoid bones: Short bones that grow with tendons
Thin, flat, and usually curved
- Cranial, ribes, sternum
Don't fit in any category
- Vertebrae and pelvis
Parts of the long bone
Diaphysis of Long Bone
The Shaft (middle part of the bone)
Epiphyses of Long Bone
The Ends (the ends of the bone)
Epiphyseal Line of Long Bone
Indicates location of growth plate (located inside the epiphyses)
Vessels of Long Bone
Main vessels are nutrient artery and nutrient vein entering via nutrient foramen.
Medullary Cavity of Long Bone
Area in the center of the diaphysis with no spongy bone (filled with bone marrow)
Membranes of Long Bone
1) Periosteum- covering the outer surface of the bone (other than where articular cartilage is located)
2) Endosteum - Covers the internal bone surfaces (trabeculae)
2 types of bone
1) Compact - superficial
2) Spongy - deep
- Network of small pieces called trabculae are filled with marrow.
Microscopic structure of the compact bone:
Osteons are groups of cylinders to help bone resist stresses.
- Each of the cylinders/tubes is a lamella.
The central Canal/ Haversion Canal of the Osteon
Runs through the core of each osteon - it contains blood vessels and nerves.
Perforating Canals of the Osteon
Lie at the right angles to the central canals and connect the blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the central canals.
Microscopic structure of the spongy bone:
Each trabecula contains several layers of lamellae and osteocytes.
The four types of cells in bone tissues:
1) Osteogenic Cells
Osteogenic Cells in bone tissue
Stem cells that differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts
Osteoblast Cells in bone tissue
Osteocyte Cells in bone tissue
Mature Bone CElls
Osteoclast Cells in bone tissue
Cells that reabsorb or break down bond tissue
- Intramembranous Ossification
- Endochondral Ossification
Flat Bones that develop from a membrane
- Skull and Clavicles
Bones develop from hyaline cartilage
- Form base of skull
-Continues into early adulthood
- Bones increase in both length and width
Growth by addition of bone tissue to its surface
-Bone is dynamic living tissue
- Spongy bone is replaced 3-4 years
- Compact Bone is replaced every 10 years
- Bone resorption via osteoclasts
-Bone deposition via osteoblasts
Bone resorption is via
Bone deposition is via
Processes on the bone
Structures that stick out - usually for muscle or ligament attachment
Large rounded projection
Larger blunt projection
Narrow ridge of bone
Small rounded projection
Projection above a condyle
Sharp, slender projection
Narrow area distal to head
Depressions and Openings
Round or oval opening
Cavity within a bone
The two types of Bone Fractures
Simple bone fracture
Bone breaks, but does not break the skin.
Compound bone fracture
Bone breaks and pierces the skin
Different types of simple and compound bone fractures
Bone breaks into small fractures
Bone is crushed. Spinal Cord compressing on itself.
Caused by excessive twisting
Epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphyseal plate
Bone portion is pressed inward
Bone does not break completely
Fracture Healing Process types
1) Hematoma Formation
2) Fibrocartilage Callus Formatoin
3) Bony Callus Formation
4) Bone Remodeling
Hematoma Formation (Fracture Healing)
Blood vessels break, releasing blood that clots
Fibrocartilage Callus Formation (Fracture Healing)
New vessels enter the area
- A soft callus forms, which later is replaced by dense connective tissue
Bony Callus Formation (Fracture Healing)
Bony Tissue Fills the area, creating a hard callus
Bone Remodeling (Fracture Healing)
Bony callus is remodeled, excess boney material is removed, and the repaired area looks like the original unbroken bone.
Bone tissue deteriorates/breaks down at a faster rate than it is being produced.
- Compact bone become thinner, spongy bone has fewer trabeculae.
- Causes bones to become porous, light, and weak
Bones are inadequately mineralized in adults.
- Bones are soft and weak
- Individuals experience pain when weight is put on the area
Bones are inadequately mineralized in children
- More severe that osteomalacia due to rapid bone growth in children
Osteomalacia and Rickets are caused by:
Vitamin D or Calcium Phosphate deficiency
Primarily affects people 10-25
Usually affects long bones
Tumors erode the compact bone.
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