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70 terms

Anthro Exam 1

UVM Intro to Anthro.: human cultures.
STUDY
PLAY
Anthropology
The discipline devoted to study of all aspects of human cultures.
Holistic
Analysis as a whole, without separation.
Physical Anthropology
the branch of anthropology dealing with the genetics and variation of human beings
Archaeology
Roots- oral, written and material histories
Cultural Anthropology
The study of humans as social beings
Linguistic Anthropology
the study of language, its structure, function, and evolution
Culture
Learned patterns of behavior, belief and actions shared by a society or group
Enculturation
the process of learning ones culture
Cultural Relativism
belief that all cultures are equally valid based on their internal structure
Fieldwork
firsthand recovery of data in the field
Informants
people who provide information on how/why their culture does what they do
Ethnography
an account of an anthropologists research with a particular group
Ethnology
comparative study of ethnoographic information in order to better understand human societies in a comparative framework.
Applied Anthropology
The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client.
Research Problem
what is it you want to know about the culture you are studying
Globalization
the trend towards increased cultural and economic connections
Objectivity
personal neutrality in conducting research
Subjectivity
judgement that is affected by personal prejudices or emotions
Emic Perspectives
local knowledge-insiders perspective on why things are done
Etic Perspectives
an outsiders view on why people do what they do
Ethnocentrism
belief that one's own culture is superior to all others
Xenophobia
fear of strange cultures/people
Kinesics
the use of body movements as a means of communication; also called body language
Proxemics
the study of spatial distances between individuals in different cultures and situations
Gender
social roles/status people are socialized into based on cultural concepts about sex
Biological Sex
biological distinctions between people (physical, hormonal and chromosomal differences)
Sexuality
a person's view of himself or herself as a male or female
Identity
who or what a person is
Gender Roles
tasks/activities each culture assigns to each culturally identified gender
Gender Stratification
division of society into unequal segments based on gender
Gender Stereotypes
strongly held beliefs about characteristics of males/females
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Matriarchy
a form of social organization in which a female is the family head and title is traced through the female line
Sexual Orientation
a persons habitual sexual attraction to others
Hijras
a member of the "third gender" in south asia usually biologically male
"Two-Spirits" (Berdache)
a third gender among american native tribes usually transgendered
Division of labor
division of tasks by age, gender, race or group
Anomie
situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable
Culture Shock
overwhelming feeling when immersed in a new culture to you
Incest Taboo
socially defined ban on sexual relations between certain individuals in a society
Social Sanctions
rewards and punishments for behaviors
Birth
the process of giving birth or being born
Rites of Passage
rituals that mark culturally significant transitions through life (separation transition incorporation)
Genital Mutilation
culturally prescribed acts designed to alter sexual organs for social expectations
Guilt
the feeling that we let ourselves down
Shame
the feeling that we let others down
Social Death
the complete social isolation and exclusion of a person
Social Role
expected behavior for people of certain status
Customary Law
expressions of law that develop in communities and are adapted as social customs
Etoro
a native tribe from papua new guinea
Ilonget
a native tribe from the phillippines
Headhunting
signs of masculinity - violence, power and dominance
Iroquoian Matrilineality
iriquois society was matrilineal meaning heritage was traced through the mother
Supernumerary Genders
genders recognized in addition to two biological sexes
Cultural Norms
a cultures social expectations for behavior
Heterosexuality
a sexual attraction to (or sexual relations with) persons of the opposite sex
Homosexuality
a sexual attraction to (or sexual relations with) persons of the same sex
Bisexuality
sexual activity with both men and women
Asexuality
A lack of sexual attraction to people of either sex
Panopticon
an area where everything is visible
Discipline
self control
Observation
the act of noticing or paying attention
Michel Foucault
X
Dominance Heirarchies
pecking order in a group
Sexual Dimorphism
a special case of polymorphism based on the distiction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females
Structural Violence
intentional use of power or position against an individual or entity
Pregnancy
The period of devolopment from fertilized egg to birth.
Secondary Altricial
humans take a long time to fully develop and learn their culture
Birthing Rituals
a cultures process for child delivery
Infanticide
death of an infant due to purposeful neglect