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Forensics Exam (except ch. 1)

STUDY
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testimonial evidence
a statement made under oath
physical evidence
any object or material that is relevant in a crime
individual evidence
can be identified with a particular person or single source
class evidence
common to a group of objects or persons
indirect evidence
provides only a basis for inference about the disputed fact
circumstantial evidence
based on suggestion rather than personal knowledge or observation
unknown sample
material that has been collected from a known location but an unknown origin
known sample
material that's been collected from a known source
control sample
material that is similar to unknown and known samples, and is used to validate the test method and procedure
crime scene
only place where evidence may be located and gathered to help explain events
modus operandi
the characteristic method of operation of a criminal; aka MO
accelerant
used to start a fire
chain of custody
a written record of all people who have had possession of an item of evidence
minutiae
characteristics of ridge patterns
arch
has friction ridges that enter on one side of the finger and cross to the other side while rising upward in the middle
loop
must have 1 or more ridges entering and exiting from the same side
whorl
pattern with at least two deltas and a core
latent fingerprints
prints that are not visible to the naked eye; consist of the natural secretions of human skin and require development for them to be visible
ninhydrin
reacts with amino acids to produce a purple color
fingerprint
imprint made by ridge patterns on the tip of a finger; also used to describe the characteristic pattern of DNA fragments
microns
one millionth of a meter
dactyloscopy
study of fingerprints
anthropometry
study of human body measurements
delta
triangular area found near the center of all loops and whorls
core
area found near the center of all loops and whorls
plastic print
3-D print made as indentations in soft material such as fresh pain, putty or wax
visible print
left by a finger that has touched blood, paint, ink, or the like
bifurcations
common minutiae; shaped like a two-pronged fork
rigor mortis
stiffness in the muscles that occurs shortly after death
livor mortis
the settling of blood, resulting in a reddish or purplish color pattern
algor mortis
the cooling rate of the body after death
autolysis
cadaver appears fresh externally but is decomposing internally due to activities of bacteria present before death
putrefication
cadaver is swollen by gas produced internally, accompanied by the odor of decaying flesh
diagenesis
cadaver is almost dry; slow rate of decay; may mummify
entomology
study of insects
instar
developmental stage of arthopods, generally referring to changes in the size of larvae
sutures
immovable joints where bones are joined together
symphysis
place where two bones meet and may rub together
serology
the examination and analysis of body fluids
ABO classification system
system for blood types based upon the reaction of antigens and antibodies
Rh factor
basic blood factor; + or -
antigen
substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies
antibody
substance that reacts with an antigen
agglutination
clumping of red blood cells; will result if blood types with different antigens are mixed
angle of impact
angle at which blood strikes a target surface
blood stain transfer
when a bloody object comes into contact with a surface and leaves a patterned blood image on the surface
backspatter
blood that is directed back toward the source of energy
cast off
blood that is thrown from and object in motion
contact stain
bloodstains caused by contact between a wet blood-bearing surface and a second surface that may or may not have blood on it
directionality
relates to the direction a drop of blood travels in space from its point of origin
terminal velocity
the greatest speed to which a free-falling drop of blood can accelerate in air (25.1 ft./sec)
high velocity
greater than 25 ft/sec
medium velocity
5-25 ft/sec
low velocity
5 ft/sec or less
area of convergence
the pint of origin (spot where blow occurred)