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47 terms

sscc vocab health assess 2

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turgor
the normal rigid state of fullness of a cell or blood vessel or capillary resulting from pressure of the contents against the wall or membrane
jaundice
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
tenting
WHEN SKIN DOES NOT IMMEDIATELY FALL BACK INTO PLACE.....IT IS AN INDICATION OF FLUID VOLUME DEFICIT, appearance of skin of a dehydrated person
cyanosis
bluish or gray color of the skin, nail beds, and/or lips due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood
pallor
unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress)
petechiae
round red or purple macule; secondary to blood extravasation; small 1-2mm; associated with bleeding tendencies or emboli to skin
Ecchymosis
round, irregular macular lesion; larger than petechia; color varies and changes (black, yellow, green hues); secondary to blood extravastion; associated with trauma, bleeding tendencies
hematoma
localized collection of blood creating an elevated ecchymosis; associated with trauma
Nevi
small, dark skin growths that develop from melanocytes in the skin; also known as moles; associated with sun exposure
keloid
hypertrophied scar tissue; secondary to excessive collagen formation during healing; elevate, irregular, red; greater incidence in African-Americans
Senile Lentigines
"liver spots". Small flat brown macules. Clusters of melanocytes that appear after extensive sun exposure. Appear on forearms and doras of the hands. Not malignant
Alopecia
loss of hair due to the destruction of hair follicles
Cherry (senile) Angioma
papular and round; red or purple; noted on trunk, extremeties; may blanch with pressure; normal age related skin alterations; usually not clinically significant
Vitiligo
a condition caused by the destruction of melanin that results in the appearance of white patches on the skin, commonly the face, hands, legs, and genital areas
macule
flat, non-palpable skin color change (skin color may be brown, white, tan, purple, red); ex-freckles, flat moles, petechiae, rubella, vitiligo, port wine stains, ecchymosis, <1cm, circumscribed border
papule
elevated, palpable, solid mass; circumscribed border; <0.5cm; ex-elevated nevi, warts, lichen planus
nodule
elevated, solid, palpable mass; extends deeper into dermis than a papule; 0.5-2cm, circumscribed; ex-lipoma, squamous cell carcinoma, poorly absorbed injection, dermatofibroma
tumor
elevated, solid, palpable mass; extends deeper into dermis than a papule; >1-2cm; doesn't always have shart borders; ex- larger lipoma and carcinoma
wheal
elevated mass with transient borders; often irregular; size and color vary; ex-urticaria (hives) and insect bites; caused by movement of serous fluid into dermis; doesn't contain free fluid in a cavity
vesicle
circumscribed elevated, palpable mass containing serous fluid; <0.5cm; ex-herpes simplex/zoster, varicella, poison ivy, second degree burn
pustule
pus filled vesicle or bulla; ex-acne, impetigo, furuncles, and carbuncles
bullae
circumscribed elevated, palpable mass containing serous fluid; >0.5cm; ex-pemphigus, contact dermatitis, large burn blisters, poison ivy, bullous impetigo
edema
swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
clubbing
180 degree angle and spongy sensation
Lichenification
thickening and roughening of the skin; accentuated skin markings; may be secondary to repeated rubbing, irritation, scratching
Hirsutism
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair, especially in unusual places (e.g., a woman with a beard)
Mongolian spots
macular areas of bluish or grey blue pigmentation found on dorsal area and buttocks of newborns
Ulcer
skin loss extending past epidermis; necrotic tissue loss; bleeding and scarring possible
Accessory muscles of respiration
scalenes, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, serratus posterior superior and inferior, rectus abdominus, transversis thoracis
Eupnea
inhalation involves muscular contractions, but exhalation is a passive process. (quiet breathing)
Bradypnea
less than 10 breaths a minute and regular; may be normal in well conditioned athletes; can occur with medication induced depression of the respiratory center, diabetic coma, and neurologic damage
tachypnea
greater than 24 breaths a minute and shallow; this may be a normal response to fever, anxiety or exercise; can occur with respiratory insufficiency, alkalosis, pneumonia, or pleurisy
Hypoventilation
decreased rate, decreased depth, and irregular pattern of breathing; usually associated with overdose of narcotics or anesthetics
Apnea
transient cessation of respiration
Hyperpnea
energetic (deep and rapid) respiration that occurs normally after exercise or abnormally with fever or various disorders
Tactile Fremitus
a palpable vibration; sounds generated from the larynx are transmitted through lung parenchyma to the chest wall, where you feel them as vibrations
Excursion
should be equal bilaterally and measured 3-5cm in adults; level of the diaphragm may be higher on the right because of the position of the liver; in well conditioned clients, it can measure up to 7 or 8cm ( resonant sound over lungs to dull over diaphragm)
Bronchovesicular
moderate pitch, mixed quality, moderate amplitude; same during inspiration and expiration' hear best over the major bronchi
Vesicular
low pitch, breezy quality, soft amplitude; long on inspiration and short on expiration; hear best over peripheral lung fields
Pneumothorax
abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung
Pleural friction rub
SUPERFICIAL LOW PITCHED,COARSE RUBBING,GRATING SOUND, HEARD IN INSPI/EXP,LOUDEST OVER ANTEROLATERAL SURFACE, NOT CLEARED BY COUGH. HEARD IN PLEURISY/PLEURITIS
Dyspnea
difficult or labored respiration
Adventitious
abnormal auscultated breath sounds such as wheezing and rhonchi
Wheezing
The sound of labored breathing as a result of narrowed tubes in the lungs.
rales
Abnormal crackling sound during inspiration. Usually indicates the presence of fluid or mucus in the airways.
Orthopnea
form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect noun
Rhonchi
lower-pitched sounds like snoring or rattling, secretions in larger airways (pneumonia, bronchitis, aspiration)