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Chapter 8 Vocab Biology
Terms in this set (40)
The series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
Mitosis replicates the chromosomes in a cell and prepares to divide.
The phase in which a cell grows and preforms normal functions as it readies to divide - Split into G1, S, and G2
G1 (Gap 1)
The cell grows and makes special proteins for DNA synthesis.
S (DNA Synthesis)
Chromosomes are replicated.
G2 (Gap 2)
Proteins needed for division are created.
The cell divides the chromosomes and makes 2 identical cells.
This is a dormant stage for cells when they don't replicate - Cells go into G0 when more of that type of cell isn't needed or they have damaged or aging DNA that could be passed down into daughter cells.
a point in G1 of the animal cell cycle at which the cell becomes "committed" to the cell cycle and after which extracellular proliferation stimulants are no longer required.
Divides the genetic material in the nucleus, such as mitosis / meiosis.
Division of the cytoplasm during cell division.
Having 2 strands of DNA, but one has the opposite sugar-phosphate backbone.
The specific sequence in DNA where the replication begins.
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
The multi-molecular machine that copies DNA; includes DNA polymerase, helicase, primase, and other enzymes.
A type of DNA replication where the 2 new DNA's have an old strand and a new one
Bead-like structure in eukaryotic chromatin, composed of a short length of DNA wrapped around a core of histone proteins.
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Something that causes mutation in genes.
When enzymes remove a damaged part of DNA and synthesize new ones.
during anaphase, the duplicate chromosomes divide and form SC and move to each side of the cell.
the part of the chromosome that holds together sister chromatids.
thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells; the genetic material of cells
The splitting of chromosomes.
The presence or lack of chromosomes in a cell that makes it abnormal.
the macromolecular machine that segregates chromosomes to two daughter cells during mitosis.
Poles at opposite ends of the cell that pull chromosomes apart with spindle fibers.
a protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.
The first stage of mitosis, when the nuclear membrane dissolves and the genetic material condenses around itself.
In mitosis, chromosomes will move to the center and get attached to the spindle
When nuclear division occurs there is an imaginary plane where it is equidistant between the two ends
The phase of mitosis where sister chromatids are pulled to opposite spindle poles.
the fifth and final phase of mitosis, the process that separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells. Telophase begins once the replicated, paired chromosomes have been separated and pulled to opposite sides, or poles, of the cell. During telophase, a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes to separate the nuclear DNA from the cytoplasm. The chromosomes begin to uncoil, which makes them diffuse and less compact
a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.
a process that halts the cell cycle during one of the normal phases (G1, S, G2, or M)
p53, also known as TP53 or tumor protein is a gene that codes for a protein that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppression
When cancer spreads from the part of the body where it started (its primary site) to other parts of the body
Genes that regulate cell growth
Tumor suppressor genes are normal genes that slow down cell division, repair DNA mistakes, or tell cells when to die. A mistake in this gene can lead to uncontrolled growth and cancer.
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