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regulation of cell cycle by...?

CDKs, cyclins: phase-specific cyclins activate CDKs, bind up RB protein which is then released from elongation factors so they can transcribe

classic tumor suppressors?

Rb, p53, inhibit G1 to S progression (checkpoint)

function of RER?

synth of secretory proteins

site of synth of secretory proteins?


function of SER?

steroid synth and detox

site of steroid synth and detox?


specific modifications made in Golgi?

- mod N-oligosacc on asparagine
- adds O-oligosacc to serine and threonine
- adds mannose-6-phosphate to lysosomal proteins

what targets molecule to lysosome?

mannose-6-phosphate addition in Golgi

cause of I-cell disease?

lysosomal storage disease, no mannose-6-phosphate added

if no mannose-6-phosphate added to lysosome proteins?

I-cell disease

sx: coarse facial features, clouded corneas, restricted joint mvmt, high plasma lysosomal enzymes?

I-cell disease

cause of Chediak Higashi?

microtubule polymerization defect so decreased phagocytosis, may be sparked by EBV infx

name some drugs that act on microtubules

- Mebendazole (worms)
- Griseofulvin (fungi)
- Vincristine (cancer)
- Paclitaxel (breast ca)
- Colchicine (gout)

recurrent pyogenic infx, partial albinism, peripheral neuropathy?

Chediak Higashi

cause of Kartagener's?

immotile cilia d/t dynein arm defect

infertility, bronchiectasis, recurrent sinusitis, association with situs inversus?


vimentin stain?


desmin stain?


cytokeratin stain?

epithelial cells

GFAP stain?


neurofilament stain?


stain for CT?


stain for muscle?


stain for epithelial cells?


stain for neuroglia?


stain for neurons?


direct inhibitors of Na-K ATPase on plasma membrane?

- cardiac glycosides (digox) = indirect inhib of Na/Ca exchange so increased Ca and cardiac contractility

type I collagen?

bone, skin, tendon

type II collagen?


type III collagen?


type IV collagen?

basement membrane

collagen in bone, skin, tendon?

type I

collagen in cartilage?

type II

collagen in reticulin?

type III

collagen in basement membranes?

type IV

defect in type IV collagen?

Alport's (nephritis, ocular defects, deafness)

sequence for collagen alpha chains?

Gly-X-Y where X and Y are proline, hydroxyproline, or hydroxylysin

proper collagen structure requires what vitamin and why?

vitamin C, to hydroxylate proline and lysine residues

hyperextensible skin, tendency to bleed, hypermobile joints, berry aneurysms?

Ehlers Danlos (type III collagen defect)

brittle bone disease?

osteogenesis imperfecta (type I collagen defect)

multiple fractures w/min trauma, blue sclerae, hearing loss, dental defects?

osteogenesis imperfecta (type I collagen defect)

sx of osteogenesis imperfecta?

1) *multiple fractures w/min trauma
2) *blue sclerae
3) hearing loss
4) dental defects

fibrillin defect?


what amino acids are prevelant in elastin?

proline, glycine

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