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Ch. 18: Revolutions of Industrialization
Terms in this set (15)
British Royal Society
The British Royal Society was an association of "natural philosophers" (scientists) established in 1660. This society saw its role as one of promoting "useful Knowledge." To this end, it established "mechanics' libraries," published broadsheets and pamphlets on recent scientific advances, and held frequent public lectures and demonstrations.
Caudillos were military strongmen. These caudillos were enabled to achieve power as defenders of order and property by conflicts between factions in Latin America in the 19th century.
Dependent development was a term used to describe a new form of colonialism. This form of colonialism was expressed in the power exercised by foreign investors.
Indian Cotton Textiles
During most of the 18th century, well-made and inexpensive Indian cotton textiles flooded Western markets. This competition stimulated the British textile industry enough so that it industrialized. Britain's industrialization led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and India.
The Labour Party was a working-class political party. This political party was established int e 1890's It advocated a reformist program and a peaceful democratic transition to socialism. Also, it largely rejected the class struggle and revolutionary emphasis of classical Marxism.
Latin American Export Boom
The Latin American export boom was the large-scale increase in Latin American exports. The exports were mostly raw materials and foodstuffs. This happened to industrializing countries in the second half of the 19th century. This export boom was made possible by major improvements in shipping. The boom mostly benefited the upper and middle classes.
Lower Middle Class
The lower middle class was a social class that included people employed in the growing service sector as clerks, salespeople, bank tellers, hotel staff, secretaries, telephone operators, police officers and the like. By the end of the 19th century, it represented about 20% of Britain's population and provided employment opportunities for women as well as men.
.Karl Marx was the most influential proponent of socialism. Mr. Marx, who lived from 1818 to 1883, was a German expatriate in England. He advocated working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future.
The Mexican Revolution was a long and bloody war. It took place from 1910-1920. During this time Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Diaz. They planned on creating a new, much more democratic political order.
The middle-class values were a belief system typical of the middle class that developed in Britain. This social class was developed in the 19th century. It emphasized thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and " respectability."
Progressives were the American political people in the period around 1990. These people advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization.
Proletariat was a term that Karl Marx used to describe the industrial working class. It was originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population.
Russian Revolution of 1905
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was the spontaneous rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country's defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905. The revolution was suppressed, but it forced the government to make substantial reforms.
Socialism in the United States
Socialism in the United States was a fairly minor political movement in the United States. At its height in 1912, it gained 6% of the vote for its presidential candidate.
The steam enginge was a mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure to drive a piston. Rather than relying on human or animal muscle power. The introduction of the steam engine allowed a hitherto unimaginable increase in productivity and made the Industrial Revolution possible.