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Study guide for final

Adversary system

accused is innocent til proven guilty
lawyers investigate
how u.s. operates
burdon on lawyers/ prosecution

Inquistorial system

judges ask questions
court personnel conducts investigation
accused is guilty till proven innocent

Procedural due process

(a) government must follow known and established procedures and may not act unpreductable
(b) government must seek to proce and be given a fair trial by jury of their peers and right to confornt witness

Substantive due process

government must have a "compelling or exeedingly important reason to interfeere or regulate with fudemental rights. The laws that are not fair can be vetoed

Fundemental rights

Right to marry; have kids
right to birth control
religious freedoms
free speech
right to vote

Protected groups

race, ethnicity
status, legal alien
Religion, national origin
gender, iligitamacy
Age, wealth

Strict scrutiny

(a) government must show really good reason why this law is being created and why the restrictions on a particular group
(b) catagories in this level: race, religon, status as legal alien
(c) rights in level: vote & travel

Intermediate scrutiny

(a) Upheld if the means chosen are substantially related to an important government interest/purpose. (Need not be the least restrictive alternative.) The government has the burden of proof.
(b) catagories in level: gender & illegitamacy

Rational basis

(a) group challeging the law must show that the law is NOT RATIONAL
(b) catagories in this level: age, wealth, disablility


" no state shall deny the privleges or immunities of citizenship"

Due process

(a) gives congress the power to enforce the requeiment through "appropriate legislation"
(b) any restrictions on national and state powers

Equal protection

" no state shall deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"

Women's sufferage movement

(a) Fredric Douglas and Elizabeth Stanton produced a document "the seneca falls declaration os sentiment"(1848)

Indian citizenship act

Extending franchise to all "indians born within the turitorial limits of the U.S"

Voting rights act

outlawed discrimination against any minorit by banning voting requirments

Dawes act

extending citizenship to native americans

Indian Naturalization act

Indians can become citizens if they go through a process similar to natrualization

15th amendment

Black men could vote

19th amnendment

women could vote

24th amendment

poor white men could vote
Voting for native americans

26th amendment

18yrs olds could vote

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