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26 terms

chemistry V

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Electromagnetic radiation
Radiant energy that exhibits wave-like behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum
Wave length
the distance between two consecutive similar points on a wave
frequency
the number of waves per second that pass a given point in space
photon
a "particle" or "packet of energy" of electromagnetic radiation
speed of light
3*10^8 m/s
wave equation
e=λf
electromagnetic spectrum
a display of all forms of electromagnetic radiation in order of frequency, wavelength and energy
energy of a photon
𝛥E=hf
(𝛥- is a triangle...)
quanta
energy levels that can only equal certain allowed values (not continuous)
planetary model (Bohr)
Atomic model that postulates electrons move around the nucleus in specific orbits
continuous spectrum
spectrum in which all frequencies of light are seen
line spectrum
spectrum in which only certain specific frequencies of light are seen
ground state
the energy level in which an atom has no excess energy (least potential energy)
excited state
energy levels in which an atom has excess energy (more potential energy)
orbitals
probability maps of three-dimensional regions of space that describe where an electron can be expected to be found
pauli exclusion principle
an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, and those two electrons must have opposite spins
Hund's rule
electrons occupy empty orbitals before they pair up to fill the orbitals in a sub level
Valence electrons
electrons in the outermost (highest_ principal energy level of an atom that are involved in bonding
core electrons
inner electrons that are no involved in bonding atoms to each other
metals
elements that tend to lose electrons in order to form positive ions
nonmetals
elements that tend to gain electrons in order to form negative ions
metalloids
elements that have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals
noble gas
the most stable type of electrons configuration
representative elements
sections of the periodiv table that include elements in the s-block and the p-block
transition elements/metals
section of the periodic table that includes elements in the d-block
ionization
the energy required to remove an electron from an individual atom in the gas phase