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Electromagnetic radiation

Radiant energy that exhibits wave-like behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum

Wave length

the distance between two consecutive similar points on a wave


the number of waves per second that pass a given point in space


a "particle" or "packet of energy" of electromagnetic radiation

speed of light

3*10^8 m/s

wave equation


electromagnetic spectrum

a display of all forms of electromagnetic radiation in order of frequency, wavelength and energy

energy of a photon

(𝛥- is a triangle...)


energy levels that can only equal certain allowed values (not continuous)

planetary model (Bohr)

Atomic model that postulates electrons move around the nucleus in specific orbits

continuous spectrum

spectrum in which all frequencies of light are seen

line spectrum

spectrum in which only certain specific frequencies of light are seen

ground state

the energy level in which an atom has no excess energy (least potential energy)

excited state

energy levels in which an atom has excess energy (more potential energy)


probability maps of three-dimensional regions of space that describe where an electron can be expected to be found

pauli exclusion principle

an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, and those two electrons must have opposite spins

Hund's rule

electrons occupy empty orbitals before they pair up to fill the orbitals in a sub level

Valence electrons

electrons in the outermost (highest_ principal energy level of an atom that are involved in bonding

core electrons

inner electrons that are no involved in bonding atoms to each other


elements that tend to lose electrons in order to form positive ions


elements that tend to gain electrons in order to form negative ions


elements that have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals

noble gas

the most stable type of electrons configuration

representative elements

sections of the periodiv table that include elements in the s-block and the p-block

transition elements/metals

section of the periodic table that includes elements in the d-block


the energy required to remove an electron from an individual atom in the gas phase

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