All Water Conservation Projects
Terms in this set (66)
Aswan High Dam (Egypt) history
it was built in the 1960s to provide flood control and irrigation water for the lower Nile basin and electricity for Cairo and other parts of Egypt; all cropland in Egypt must be irrigated, and the country is completely dependent on the Nile for this water
Aswan High Dam (Egypt) reasons for project
it provides ⅓ of Egypt's electrical power; year round food production in the lower Nile basin has increased food production (they produce much more than they used to; desert land is being cultivated and changed
Aswan High Dam (Egypt) environmental problems
it ended the yearly flooding that fertilized the Nike Delta with silt→ now the river's silt accumulates behind the dam, filling up Lake Nasser; without annual discharge of sediment in the Nile, the sea is eroding the delta and advancing inland, reducing productivity on large areas of agricultural land; lowering of land elevation by loss of the Nile's vital river delta
Aswan High Dam (Egypt) future plans
cropland in the Nile Delta basin must now be treated with commercial fertilizer at a high price (100 mil) to make up for plant nutrients
Aswan High Dam (Egypt) economic strains/benefit
cropland has to now be treated with fertilizer costing $100 million annually; because salts are no longer flushed from the soil, salinization has offset ¾ of the gain in food production from new, less productive land irrigated by water from the reservoir; the country loses about 10% of its crop production annually to delcining soil fertility (mainly from salinization); many commercial fish species have dissapeared→ led to the loss of about 30,000 jobs, millions of $ annnually; new fishing industries are helping offset costs
Aswan High Dam (Egypt) commentary
it sounds like the original aim of the project had a good purpose, but that over time, as population and everything else has grown, it started to take over the area and cause more harm to the environment than good like many other things have done
Colorado River Basin history of the area and the project
In 1869, John Wesley Powell was traveling down the Colorado River and and noted that Western US was hostile for farming unless dams were constructed. For the past 100 years, this concept has been put to use by using the Colorado River's water, which runs 2,300 km from Northern Colorado to the mouth of the Gulf of California and ends in a rich delta in Mexico. It is tamed by a gigantic plumbing system with several major dams and reservoirs, 100s of smaller dams and a network of aqueducts and canals that supply water to farmers, ranchers, and cities. It is divided into 2 sections: Upper Basin (Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico) and Lower Basin (Arizona, Nevada, and California).
Colorado River Basin reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
It dispenses water for more than 20 million people in seven states and for over 7% of the nation's cropland; its hydroelectric plants generate about 12 million kW of electricity a year; river water costs only 25 cents per acre-foot
Colorado River Basin environmental impacts of manipulation
Environmentalists have been in controversy and legal battles over how much of the river's limited and precious water could be used for towns, ranchers, farmers, Native Americans, and Mexicans and how much should be left for wildlife. They have also fought for keeping more of the river wild by not building so many large dams.
Colorado River Basin future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
The best solutions to this challenge emphasize conservation, which is cheaper, faster and easier to implement than costly, wasteful new pipelines or impractical, energy-guzzling systems to turn salt water into drinking water. Conservation is the practical, flexible, common-sense option. It relies on market-oriented solutions, such as water banking, in which water users are compensated to save water and these savings are dedicated for later use when the need is greater. These approaches will ensure we have the water we need for a thriving economy and prosperous communities, and also protect the river and the ecosystems, wildlife and businesses it supports.
Colorado River Basin economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
"Colorado River, Inc.: The $26 Billion Recreation Resource Employing a Quarter Million Americans," revealing the Colorado River to be the 19th largest employer on the Fortune 500, and major economic powerhouse fueling economies in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming.
Colorado River Basin your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
As one of the biggest economic drivers it is hard to stop building dams but it is necessary if we want to be able to use it sustainably.
California water transfer history of the area and the project
in CA, the basic water problem is that 75% of the population lives south of Sacramento, but 75% of the rain falls north of it; the CA water project uses a maze of giant dams, pumps, and aqueducts to transport water from water-rich northern CA to heavily populated areas and to arid and semiarid agricultural regions (mostly southern CA)
California water transfer reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
the water is needed to suport growing urban area 9san diego, la); agriculture uses 82% of the water withdrawn, alfalfa (to feed cattle) and cotton uses as much water as the homes of all 33 mil CA's
California water transfer environmental impacts of manipulation
degrade Sacramento river, threaten fisheries, reduce the flushing action that helps clean San fransisco bay of pollutants,
California water transfer future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
freeing up water through conservation, switching to less water-intensive crops or fallowing. Some past deals have been revealed as nothing more than scams in which sellers propose to transfer more water from streams, not water actually conserved. Some have been bold enough to try to sell non-existent "paper water". And, of course, transfers should not be allowed to further harm the Delta or the state's imperiled fisheries. Like any market, appropriate regulation is needed to make a water market work well.
California water transfer economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
Done right, water transfers can benefit everyone: they offer security to the farmers who sell the water, they provide a precious water source for farmers and cities who buy it, they provide an incentive to increase investments in efficiency, and they can reduce pressure on the environment.
California water transfer your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
This program will benefit farmers in the short term but it will remove the water from surrounding ecosystems where the rain actually fell and not help sustainability.
James Bay Watershed history of the area and the project
It was a transfer project out of Quebec, Canada. The goal of it was to control rivers flowing into James and Hudson Bays in order to generate electricity. It created 600 dams and dikes on 19 different rivers.
James Bay Watershed reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
It was being manipulated to generate more electricity. The potential power coming from the project is about 27,000 megawatts.
James Bay Watershed environmental impacts of manipulation
It would flood an area of tundra equal in size to the state of Washington. The project alters/reverses the flow of 19 major rivers. Some developments may change timing and rate of flow could also cause changes in nature of ice cover, habitats of marine species/birds, currents into/out of bays, sediments/nutrients, and fish populations. Animals are at risk due to the toxic metals and chemicals. It would take away the habitat of many.
James Bay Watershed future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
Considering this is a project in progress, there are only plans to continue building.
James Bay Watershed economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
It displaces natives. It takes $60 billion. It has a large amount of hydroelectric potential. It would produce power for people in Canada and the US (specifically New York).
James Bay Watershed your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
I feel like it will take longer than they want it to. It costs a lot of many and has already been postponed. There are already doubts about certain parts of it being built.
Aral Sea watershed- history of the area and the project
The basin's water woes began in the 1930s with a Soviet development plan to create a cotton industry in the Central Asian desert. Rivers flowing into the Aral Sea were diverted to nourish the thirsty crop, setting off the inland sea's decline. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, several watershed countries have maintained a cotton-based economy.
Aral Sea watershed- reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
the surge in agriculture (mainly cotton a thirsty plant) in the arid region called for an increase in irrigation. to satisfy this need much of the water that normally runs into the aral sea has been redirected for use in irrigation.
Aral Sea watershed- environmental impacts of manipulation
The sea level of the aral sea has dropped dramatically with a 75% decrease in volume, as a result the salinity has increased dramatically as well. The increase in salinity has caused major disturbances to the aquatic systems associated with the aral sea over 24 extinctions linked to the increase in salinity.
Aral Sea watershed- future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
The U.N. and world bank have spent 600 million dollars to mitigate some of the public health risks involved (purify drinking water,upgrade irrigation and drainage systems to improve efficiency, flush salts from cropland and boost crop productivity,
construct wetlands and artificial lakes to help restore aquatic vegetation, wildlife and fisheries.)
Aral Sea watershed- economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
reduction of crop yields by 20-50% from a combination of climate change and severe salinization of almost a third of the area's cropland.
Aral Sea watershed- your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
The fate of the aral sea serves as a cautionary tale toward overtaxing a watershed, and growing crops in a place where they are not meant be grown. The initial goal of increasing crop yields has backfired due to a decrease in overall crop yields as well as a growing portion of the region's farm land becoming to saline to grow anything.
Mining groundwater: Ogallala Aquifer history of the area and the project
the ogallala aquifer is one of the largest aquifer systems in the world. It stretches across all or portions of eight states generally from north to south to include South Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas and underlies about 174,000 square miles. N.H. Darton is credited with describing and naming the formation in 1899 after the town of Ogallala, Nebraska.
Mining groundwater: Ogallala Aquifer reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
The ogallala aquifer is relatively easy to access and is primarily used for irrigation (95% of the water pumped from the ogallala aquifer is used for irrigation.
Mining groundwater: Ogallala Aquifer environmental impacts of manipulation
Monitoring of the depth-to-water in the aquifer's Southern High Plains revealed rapid declines in the water table in the early 1950s, 1960s, and the 1970s. Declines of a foot or more per year were recorded throughout the 1940s; and during the late 1950s at the peak of irrigation development, some monitoring wells indicated as much as five feet of decline in a single year. The trend of rapid decline started slowing in the mid-1970s. By 1985, the portion of the Ogallala aquifer within the service area of the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District No. 1 began to stabilize. In some limited or unique areas, water level rises have been documented.
Mining groundwater: Ogallala Aquifer future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
Irrigation water escaping from fields into road ditches ("irrigation tailwater") is not as common as it once was in the 1960s and 1970s. Improved technologies, spurred on by incentives such as the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) and low interest agricultural water conservation equipment loan programs, have helped improve water use efficiencies. For example, average water use efficiency within the High Plains Water District service area improved from about 50 percent in the mid 1970s to approximately 75 percent in 1990. Current state-of-the-art low pressure, full dropline center pivot systems, used in conjunction with furrow dikes, are about 95 percent efficient, while buried subsurface drip irrigation lines approach 100 percent efficiency.
Mining groundwater: Ogallala Aquifer economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
Approximately 95 percent of the water pumped from the Ogallala is for irrigation. The High Plains area represents 65 percent of the total irrigated acreage in the United States. this means that the ogallala aquifer supports 65% of the us's agricultural industry
Mining groundwater: Ogallala Aquifer your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
the ogallala aquifer represents a valuable resource to america and more efforts are needed to preserve it (such as more efficient irrigation systems)
Columbia River Basin history of the area and the project
For many years non-Native American dwellers of the Columbia River have brought much damage to the Columbia River with their industries. Since 1883 people looking to make life easier have made life harder for the wildlife that is part of this river. In 1883 the cannery business hurt the salmon living in that area.
Columbia River Basin reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
rivers have always been the gathering point for many pioneer's and facilitate expansion, over time many industry's waste had found its way into the river altering it's aquatic systems
Columbia River Basin environmental impacts of manipulation
due to many industries depositing materials into the watershed , the river has been contaminated by heavy metals, carcinogens, and higher levels of bacteria in the water. these combined greatly disturb the local aquatic systems and pose a serious public health risk.
Columbia River Basin future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
In the quest on making the Columbia River safer and cleaner the pulp and paper mills are putting together a project where they will stop the bleaching of paper which will in turn help in the cleaning up process of the polluted waters. This will help them both economically and politically now that we are in an age of environmental safety. They are doing this by using and alternative bleaching substance that is environmentally safe.
Columbia River Basin economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
They also have the Bingen Wetlands Improvement Project which helps in saving the planets most productive and most diverse ecosystem that there is. They were successful in winning a $30,000 lawsuit against Columbia Aluminum for their violation of the Clean Water Act.
Columbia River Basin your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
this is yet another example of the tragedy of the commons where businesses have degraded another public resource making it unusable. this situation shows the weakness of the epa and its inability to enforce its own laws.
Channelization/interruption of the Kissimmee River/Everglades history of the area and the project
Between 1962 and 1971, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) channeled the Kissimmee River and created a 30-foot deep, 300-foot wide, 56 mile long drainage canal (C-38). This project converted 44% of the floodplain to pasture, draining approximately 31,000 acres of wetlands. Before channelization, the River was a haven for wildlife, including at least 39 species of fish and 38 species of water birds.
Channelization/interruption of the Kissimmee River/Everglades reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
to convert much of the unusable floodplain into more farmland, this was done by creating a drainage canal.
Channelization/interruption of the Kissimmee River/Everglades environmental impacts of manipulation
the drastic alteration of the ecosystem by converting floodplain into pasture, caused many species in the region to either emigrate or die.
Channelization/interruption of the Kissimmee River/Everglades future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
Kissimmee River Restoration began in 1992 and has been the most successful ecosystem restoration initiative to date. By re-channelizing the River to replicate its natural paths, birds and other wildlife responded more quickly than anticipated and demonstrated the resiliency of nature. This success has been used all over the world to justify the value of ecosystem restoration. When Kissimmee River Restoration is completed in 2015, more than 40 square miles of the River-floodplain ecosystem will be restored, including almost 20,000 acres of wetlands
Channelization/interruption of the Kissimmee River/Everglades economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
the drainage canal did convert up to 44% of the floodplain into usable farmland, this allowing farmers to grow crops and graze cattle. it also lessen the monetary damage to local residences from the seasonal flooding.
Channelization/interruption of the Kissimmee River/Everglades your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
though there were numerous benefits to this project, recently there has been a massive sway in public opinion regarding it favoring to revert the pastoral land back into flood plains. this change in opinions shows that most people would favor the recreational benefits of restoring the region than the monetary rewards the usable land provided.
Wetland regulation, usage, and technology in waste water treatment (mostly in book, but needs some outside work). history of the area and the project
Treatment of wastewater is a relatively modern practice. While sewers were common in ancient Rome to remove foul-smelling water, it was not until the 19th century that large cities began to reduce the amount of pollutants in the wastewater they were discharging to the environment. Since that time, the practice of wastewater collection and treatment has undergone substantial engineering improvements, and many state and federal regulations have been enacted
Wetland regulation, usage, and technology in waste water treatment reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
If wastewater is not properly treated, then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. These impacts can include harm to fish and wildlife populations, oxygen depletion, beach closures and other restrictions on recreational water use, restrictions on fish and shellfish harvesting and contamination of drinking water.
Wetland regulation, usage, and technology in waste water treatment environmental impacts of manipulation
waste water treatment cleanses much of the contaminants that are found in runoff and used water from homes and industries. the water is cleaned to a point where the natural aquatic systems can tolerate it.
Wetland regulation, usage, and technology in waste water treatment future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
the epa is researching more efficient ways of waste water treatment and will be able to filter out many more harmful substances in the future, the harmful substances include endocrine disruptors.
Wetland regulation, usage, and technology in waste water treatment economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
water and waste water treatment costs the average american household 523$ a year, this in no way reflects the true cost of providing usable clean water.
Wetland regulation, usage, and technology in waste water treatment your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
waste water treatment is an important function and it's process can be improved. however, the cost that the consumer pays in no way reflects how scarce water is a resource and often leads to overuse and waste.
Three Gorges Dam (China) history of the area and the project
The dam project is composed of the dam, the hydropower stations and the navigation facility. It measures 607 feet tall and the top is 3,319 yards wide. It has taken 17 years to finish the construction of the whole project, which started in 1992 and includes three stages.
Three Gorges Dam (China) reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
the dam spans the yangtze river and is capable of supplying more than 8 timer the power of the hoover dam.
Three Gorges Dam (China) environmental impacts of manipulation
More than 265 billion gallons of raw sewage are dumped into the Yangtze annually. In addition, the reservoir itself flooded 1,600 abandoned factories, mines, dumps, and potential toxic waste sites. The most current environmental concern with the Three Gorges Dam is the prevalence of landslides. So far there have been 91 places where the shore has collapsed, with a total of 36 kilometers of land caved in
Three Gorges Dam (China) future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
a chinese botanist found a species of birch tree that can survive the depth fluctuations in the river and prevent many of the landslides from occuring
Three Gorges Dam (China) economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
the three gorge damn produces 80 thw a year and costed 26 billion to construct.
Three Gorges Dam (China) your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
though the dam is a main source of cleaner energy for an energy starved country such as china, it has a host of environmental impacts, if these impacts can be mitigated then this project would be a resounding success.
Flooding risks in Bangladesh history of the area and the project
80% of the country is floodplains and shifting islands of silt; runoff from monsoon rains in the Himalayas flows down the rivers through Bangladesh. Great floods used to only occur every 50 years, but during the 70s and 80s they came about every 4 years
Flooding risks in Bangladesh reasons for the manipulation of the area's hydrology.
Rapid population growth, deforestation, overgrazing, and unsustainable farming on steep, easily erodible mountain slopes; poor have cleared many of the country's coastal mangrove forests for fuelwood, cultivation of crops, and aquaculture ponds for raising shrimp
Flooding risks in Bangladesh environmental impacts of manipulation
Greatly diminished the ability of the soil to absorb water. water runs off, carrying topsoil, causes disastrous flooding
Flooding risks in Bangladesh future plans and or solutions to the project/impact if they exist.
If Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal cooperate in reforestation and flood control measures and reduce their population growth, the severity of the problem can be reduced. to reduce flooding:
a. Straightening and deepening streams (channelization)
b. Building levees and dams
c. Restoring wetlands to take advantage of natural flood control provided by floodplains
d. Instituting floodplain management to get people out of flood-prone areas
Flooding risks in Bangladesh economic strain and or gain of the project (future and current).
Economic strain- In 1988 a flood covered ⅔ of Bangladesh's land for 3 weeks, leveled 2 million homes, killed 2000 people, left 30 million people homeless, destroyed a quarter of the country's crops, which cost $1.5 billion in damages and caused thousands to die of starvation
a. Fixing the problem would also be expensive- US Army Corps of Engineers spent $25 billion on channelization, dams, and levees, but flood damage has still increased
Flooding risks in Bangladesh your opinions and thoughts on the situation.
In my opinion, human lives are the most important concern in this situation. Whatever means necessary should be implemented to prevent flooding from killing and starving so many people. I think that the government should buy the natural flood plains and restore wetlands. As this land is needed for farming, they should make farming elsewhere more efficient, using methods such as growing native crops where they belong. Also, they should store surplus food to be distributed in case of a similar disaster.