Part 1 of the First Two Years (Cognitive)
Terms in this set (48)
Size Changes in First 2 Years
1. By the time a child is 2 years old they are half their adult height and 3/4's their adult brain size.
2. Progress in body movement allows advances in cognition. There's a bidirectional link between action and perception/cognition.
3. Birthweight doubles by 4th month, triples by 1st birthday, and quadruples by 2nd birthday.
4. Brain weight triples during first two years.
5. 3x the birthweight by age 1 and 12 inches taller than birth height by age 2.
An average, or standard, measurement calculated from the measurements of many people within a specific population.
A biological mechanism that protects the brain and allows it to keep growing when malnutrition disrupts body growth. The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged.
One of billions of nerve cells in the central nervous system, especially in the brain (brain cells). Each has a single axon and numerous dendrites, spreading out like branches.
cortex (neocortex) (p.89 dev cortex picture)
The entire crinkled outer layer of the brain. Contains the Frontal (planning/self-control/self-regulation, matures late), Auditory (hearing/well-developed at birth), and Visual (least mature at birth). 70% of neurons are in the cortex (the brain's 6 outer layers). Most thinking, feeling, and sensing involve the cortex.
A nerve fiber that extends from a neuron and sends electrical signals to the dendrites of other neurons.
A nerve fiber (many) that extend from a neuron and receives electrical signals from other neurons via their axons. Dendrite growth is the major reason brain weight triples in first 2 years.
Critical communication links within the brain. The intersection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons.
A brain chemical that carries information from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron.
The area of the cortex at the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation, planning, and impulse control.
shaken baby syndrome
A life-threatening injury after an infant is forcefully shaken back and forth, a motion that ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections, causes baby to quiet down.
REM (rapid eye movement)
A stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed lids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves.
An unlearned, involuntary action or movement emitted in response to a stimulus. It's an automatic response that is built into the nervous system and occurs without conscious thought. There are 3 sets that are critical for survival.
3 Reflex Sets Critical for Survival (p.95)
1. Maintain Oxygen Supply (breathing reflex, hiccups, sneezes, thrashing to escape something covering face).
2. Maintain Constant Body Temp. (cold=cry, shiver, tuck in legs ; hot=push away blanket and lie still).
3. Facilitate Feeding (sucking reflex, rooting reflex, swallowing, crying, spitting up)
When infants' feet are stroked, their toes fan upward.
Hold an infant upright with feet touching flat surface, they'll move legs to walk.
When laid horizontally on stomachs, will stretch out arms and legs.
Palmar Grasping Reflex
Touch infant's palms, grip it tightly.
When startled, infant will fling arms outward then bring together on chests, as if to hold something, while crying with wide-open eyes.
Gross Motor Skills
Physical abilities involving large body movements, like walking and jumping. Gross means "big." Ex: Sit=4 mo/Sit By Self=7 mo/Pull to stand=10 mo/Stand alone=14 mo/Walk well=15 mo/Walk backward=17 mo/Run=20 mo/Jump up=29 mo.
Fine Motor Skills
Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of the hands and fingers, such as drawing and picking up a coin.
The response of a sensory system (eyes/ears/skin/tongue/nose) when it detects a stimulus.
The mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets a sensation.
The ability to focus the two eyes in a coordinated manner in order to see one image.
immunization (detail chart p. 101)
A process that stimulate's the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease. Can accomplish either naturally (by having the disease) or through vaccination (an injection). aka: inoculation or vaccination
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
A situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months old, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep. To prevent, let baby sleep on back.
A custom in which parents and their children sleep together in the same bed. Risk factor for SIDS.
Piaget's term for the way infants think--by using their senses and motor skills--during the first period of cognitive development. Birth to 24 months (2 years).
Piaget's term for a type of adaptation in which new experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas.
Piaget's term for a type of adaptation in which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences.
The realization that objects (including people) still exist when they can no longer be seen, touched, or heard.
The stage-five toddler (12-18 mod) who experiments without anticipating the results, using trial-and-error in active and creative exploration.
Information-Processing Theory (p.108)
Contrasts with Piaget's Cognitive Theory. A perspective that compare human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output.
Traces step by step learning of infants. Each advance is seen as the accumulation of many small advances, not as a new stage.
An experimental apparatus that give an illusion of a sudden drop off between one horizontal surface and another. The older the toddler, the more he refused to cross it.
reminder session (p.109)
Tool for early memory. A perceptual experience that is intended to help a person recollect an idea, thing or experience, without testing whether the person remembers it at the moment. Very young infants can store memories, especially if given reminder sessions.
reminder session example
From 10-24 months, when teaching a toddler something, break it down into easy-to-remember steps and name them while showing the steps. Ex: to clean a table, wet it with water from a spray bottle and say "put on the water", wipe it with a paper towel and say "wipe it" then place towel in trash and say "toss it." Most toddlers remembered a week later how to do task.
The high-pitched, simplified, and repetitive way adults speak to infants. "baby talk"
The extended repetition of certain syllables, such as ba-ba-ba, that begins when babies are between 6 and 9 months old.
naming explosion (vocabulary spurt)
A sudden increase in an infant's vocabulary, especially in the number of nouns, that begins at about 18 months of age.
A single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought.
language acquisition device (LAD) (p.117)
Noam Chomsky's term for a hypothesized mental structure that enables humans to learn language, including the basic aspects of grammar, vocabulary, and intonation. Compared in book to social and behaviorist theories.
Social Deprivation Effects (p.92)
Infants in frightened or impersonal homes are at risk for lifelong brain damage. Head sparing, plasticity and catch up growth cannot overcome prolonged early deprivation.
Breast Feeding Benefits
p. 104 Breast milk is ideal food and reduces malnutrition and diseases.
6 stages of Sensorimotor Intelligence (p.106)
Primary Circular Reactions (Stage 1-Reflexes, Stage 2-adaptations)
Secondary Circular Reactions (Stage 3-Sights last, Stage 4-Adapt and Anticipate)
Tertiary Circular Reactions (Stage 5-Experiment), Stage 6-Ideas)
Spoken Language Development Chart (p.112)
2 months=Meaningful Noises
6-9=Babbling with repeating consonant/vowel sounds
10-12=Language comprehension, Pointing to communicate, First deaf signs, intonations speechlike
12=First spoken words that are recognizable
13-18=Slow growth to 50 words
18=Naming Explosion, 3+ words/day, Varies.
24=Multiword sentences. Half of utterances are 2+ words long
Heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color and reflexes.
Breech Baby (p.63)
Buttocks going first into cervix when labor begins.
Triggered by fetal brain.