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Emission line spectrum
Consists of coloured lines against a dark background, indicates the presence of energy levels in atoms.
Scientist who proposed that electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed paths called orbits or energy levels which are quantised, i.e. fixed at a definite amount.
Describes an electron which has moved into a higher energy level after it has absorbed a certain amount of energy.
E = hf
Formula to show that the definite amount of energy emitted from atom is equal to the light of definite frequency or wavelength in emission spectrum
Type of spectrum produced when white light is passed through a gaseous sample of an element.
Atomic absorption spectrometer
Instrument which indicates the amount of light absorbed and so measures the concentration of a metal in a sample. Used in the analysis of water for heavy metals like lead, mercury and cadmium
States that when building up the electronic configuration of an atom in its ground state, the electrons occupy the lowest available energy level
Cu and Cr
Exceptions to order of sublevels. Both have a half-full 4s orbital and a full or half-full 3d sublevel as this is a more stable configuration.
Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity
States that when two or more orbitals of equal energy are available, the electrons occupy them singly before filling them in pairs.
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
States that no more than two electrons may occupy an orbital and they must have opposite spin.
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
States that it is impossible to measure at the same time both the velocity and the position of an electron.
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