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Chapter 13: Forensic Anthropology

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Anthropology
the scientific study of the origins and behavior as well as the physical, social, and cultural development of humans.
Forensic Anthropology
the study of physical anthropology as it applies to human skeletal remains in a legal setting
in bone marrow (inside of bones)
Where are blood cells made?
Osteoporosis
weakening of the bone; may happen if there is not enough calcium in the diet and the body takes it from the bones to compensate
osteoblasts
a type of cell capable of migrating and depositing new bone
ossification
the process that replaces soft cartilage with hard bone by the deposition of minerals
osteocytes
an osteoblast that becomes trapped in the construction of bone; also known as a living bone cell
osteoclasts
bone cells involved in the breaking down of bone and the removal of waste
joints
locations where bone meet
cartilage
wraps the ends of bones and keeps them from scraping one another
ligaments
bands that connect two or more bones together
tendons
connect muscle to bone
osteobiography
the physical record of a person's life as told by his or her bones; tells much about a person through the study of the skeleton
epiphysis
the presence of a visible line that marks the place where cartilage is being replaced by bone
Facial Reconstruction
when clay is contoured to follow the height of the facial markers which are positioned at critical locations on the skull
skeletal trauma analysis
the investigation of bones and the marks on them to uncover a potential cause of death
Mitochondrial DNA
type of DNA in bones that is inherited only from the mom
gender, age, height, type of sports they play, nutritional deficiences
Analyzing bones can reveal clues to what such things?
shape of eye sockets, ratio of width to height of nasal opening, projection of upper jaw over lower jaw, width of face
How is distinguishing race determined by the skull?
skull and femur
Distinguishing race is best indicated by which bones?
because of the blending of physical traits
Why is distinguishing race losing its significance?
diet/nutrition (especially lack of vitamin D and calcium); diseases and genetic orders, arthritis, scoliosis; previous fractures; types of work/sports; surgical implants; childbirth
What types of characteristics can bones show?
~206
~450
How many bones do adults have?
How many bones do babies have?
because they are not fused completely yet
Why do babies have 450 bones? [compared to adults who have 206]
30 years
How long do bones continue to increase in size?
In 1932
When did the FBI first open a crime lab
Wilherlm His
Who used skull of Bach to reconstruct his face in clay in 1895?
1800s in Europe
When did scientists begin studying skulls?
females
In what gender do skeletons tend to be smoother (gracile)?
males
In what gender is the surface of the bone where muscle and tendons attach thicker?
males
In what gender is the skull more massive and bumpier?
male
In what gender is the frontal lobe low and sloping?
male
In what gender is the eye orbit usually square?
male
In what gender is the lower jaw square with an angle close to 90 degrees?
male
In what gender is the chin more square?
male
In what gender is the brow ridge thicker and larger?
male
In what gender is the occiptial protuberance on the back of the skulls thicker due to neck muscles?
female
In what gender does the pelvis weigh less?
female
In what gender is the angle of the femur in relation to the pelvis greater?
male
In what gender is the femur thicker?
age 30
When will the suture at the back of the skull (lambdoidal) be closed?
age 32
When will the sagittal (suture running across the top of the skull, back to front) be closed?
age 50
When will the coronal (suture running side to side over the top of the skull, near the front) be closed?
Living bones
What type of bone will shatter in a spiral pattern parallel to the length?
old bones
What type of bone will break perpendicular to the length?