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11 sections of the american academy of forensic science
criminalistics, multimedia sciences, engineering science, general, jurisprudence, odontology, pathology/biology, physical anthropology, psychiatry, questioned documents, toxicology
forensics were made by people who...
1. made it possible to use evidence and 2. applied that in the criminal justice system
discovered a precise method for detecting small amounts of arsenic in te victim's stomach
considered the father of forensic toxicology; first scientific treatise on detection of poisons
francis henry galton
took the first definitive study of fingerprints and developed a methodology for classifying them
locard's exchange principle
when two objects come into contact with one another, there is an exchange of materials between them
why is there more participation in the criminal justice system now?
more crime rates; dna profiling; drug related arrests; supreme court needs good evidence; better technology
4 major labs
fbi, drug enforcement administration, bureau of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives, us postal inspection
basic services provided by crime labs
physical science, biology, firearms, document examination, photography
strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analysis
frye vs. united states
in order to be admitted as evidence in trial, the procedure must be generally accepted by the scientific community
judging scientific evidence steps
whether the scientific technique has been tested; whether the technique has been subject to peer review and publication; the technique's potential rate of error; existence and maintenance of standards controlling the technique's operation; whether the scientific theory has gotten acceptance
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