11 sections of the american academy of forensic science
criminalistics, multimedia sciences, engineering science, general, jurisprudence, odontology, pathology/biology, physical anthropology, psychiatry, questioned documents, toxicology
main areas of forensic science
chemistry, biology, physics, geology, and computer technology
people think every case will have good evidence and will be solvable
forensics were made by people who...
1. made it possible to use evidence and 2. applied that in the criminal justice system
who was among the first to recognize the potential of fingerprints as id?
made the first notes about fingerprints but didnt know they were id
devised the first successful test for detecting the poison arsenic in corpses
discovered a precise method for detecting small amounts of arsenic in te victim's stomach
considered the father of forensic toxicology; first scientific treatise on detection of poisons
invented polarizing microscope
formulated first procedures for microscopic detection of sperm
takes body measurements as a way of id
came up with anthropometry system
francis henry galton
took the first definitive study of fingerprints and developed a methodology for classifying them
wrote books on scientific stuff
study of blood and body fluids
blood typed (a, o, b, ab)
wrote questioned documents
locard's exchange principle
when two objects come into contact with one another, there is an exchange of materials between them
refined techniques of firearms examination
sir alec jefferys
developed first dna profiling test
oldest forensic lab in the us
world's largest forensic lab
t/f the us has no national system of forensic labs.
why is there more participation in the criminal justice system now?
more crime rates; dna profiling; drug related arrests; supreme court needs good evidence; better technology
4 major labs
fbi, drug enforcement administration, bureau of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives, us postal inspection
basic services provided by crime labs
physical science, biology, firearms, document examination, photography
physical science unit
applies chemistry, physics, and geology to crimes
applies bio to crimes
looks at bullets and wounds from guns
document examination unit
looks at pics
optional services provided by crime labs
toxicology, latent fingerprint, polygraph, voiceprint, csi
looks in body fluids to see if there are drugs or poisons
latent fingerprint unit
looks at fingerprints
voiceprint analysis unit
people collect evidence
three specialized forensic services
pathology, anthropology, and entomology
looks at behavior, disorders, psychology
examines teeth and bite marks
looks at how outside environmental stuff could be a factor
strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analysis
frye vs. united states
in order to be admitted as evidence in trial, the procedure must be generally accepted by the scientific community
may offer information on relevant stuff
judging scientific evidence steps
whether the scientific technique has been tested; whether the technique has been subject to peer review and publication; the technique's potential rate of error; existence and maintenance of standards controlling the technique's operation; whether the scientific theory has gotten acceptance
brief judging scientific evidence
has it been tested; have peers tested it; can it be wrong; operation of it; acceptance?
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