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11 sections of the american academy of forensic science

criminalistics, multimedia sciences, engineering science, general, jurisprudence, odontology, pathology/biology, physical anthropology, psychiatry, questioned documents, toxicology

main areas of forensic science

chemistry, biology, physics, geology, and computer technology


forensic scientist

csi effect

people think every case will have good evidence and will be solvable

forensics were made by people who...

1. made it possible to use evidence and 2. applied that in the criminal justice system

who was among the first to recognize the potential of fingerprints as id?

the chinese

marcello malpighi

made the first notes about fingerprints but didnt know they were id


devised the first successful test for detecting the poison arsenic in corpses

valentin ross

discovered a precise method for detecting small amounts of arsenic in te victim's stomach


considered the father of forensic toxicology; first scientific treatise on detection of poisons

william nichol

invented polarizing microscope

henri-louis bayard

formulated first procedures for microscopic detection of sperm


takes body measurements as a way of id


came up with anthropometry system

francis henry galton

took the first definitive study of fingerprints and developed a methodology for classifying them

hans gross

wrote books on scientific stuff


study of blood and body fluids

karl landsteiner

blood typed (a, o, b, ab)

albert osborn

wrote questioned documents

locard's exchange principle

when two objects come into contact with one another, there is an exchange of materials between them

walter mccrone

first microscopist

calvin goddard

refined techniques of firearms examination

sir alec jefferys

developed first dna profiling test

oldest forensic lab in the us


fbi laboratory

world's largest forensic lab

t/f the us has no national system of forensic labs.


why is there more participation in the criminal justice system now?

more crime rates; dna profiling; drug related arrests; supreme court needs good evidence; better technology

4 major labs

fbi, drug enforcement administration, bureau of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives, us postal inspection

basic services provided by crime labs

physical science, biology, firearms, document examination, photography

physical science unit

applies chemistry, physics, and geology to crimes

biology unit

applies bio to crimes

firearms unit

looks at bullets and wounds from guns

document examination unit

examines handwriting

photography unit

looks at pics

optional services provided by crime labs

toxicology, latent fingerprint, polygraph, voiceprint, csi

toxicology unit

looks in body fluids to see if there are drugs or poisons

latent fingerprint unit

looks at fingerprints

polygraph unit

lie detector

voiceprint analysis unit

voice diagram

csi unit

people collect evidence

three specialized forensic services

pathology, anthropology, and entomology

forensic psychiatry

looks at behavior, disorders, psychology

forensic odontology

examines teeth and bite marks

forensic engineering

looks at how outside environmental stuff could be a factor

scientific method

strict guidelines to ensure careful and systematic collection, organization, and analysis

frye vs. united states

in order to be admitted as evidence in trial, the procedure must be generally accepted by the scientific community

expert witness

may offer information on relevant stuff

judging scientific evidence steps

whether the scientific technique has been tested; whether the technique has been subject to peer review and publication; the technique's potential rate of error; existence and maintenance of standards controlling the technique's operation; whether the scientific theory has gotten acceptance

brief judging scientific evidence

has it been tested; have peers tested it; can it be wrong; operation of it; acceptance?

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