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Study of the flow of nutrients and energy through the environment

Essential nutrients

Necessary, but must be taken into body, can't be synthesized


Most essential nutrient; forms cells, cools us, flushes wastes, dissolves chemicals,


Needed in large quantities-Carbs, fats, and protein


CHO-supplies energy, powers mvmt and nervous activity, brain can use it,

Simple carbs

Sugars-rapidly absorb in bloodstream

Complex carbs

Starch and Fiber- made of sugar polymers; provides long-lasting energy, less difficult for blood sugar regulation


Burned for energy in low intensity exercise (cals), most energy dense nutrient


Forms dry wt of body, forms muscles, CT, bones, & skin

Functions of Nutrients

Structure, Energy, Regulates Metabolism, Fluid Balance, & Acid/Base Balance


Process of releasing energy from food, converting substance into other substances, and preparing end products for excretion; Sum of all biochemical reactions in the body


The energy required to raise the temp of 1 g water, 1 degree centigrade

Carbs, Fats, and Proteins energy values

Carb=4 kcal/g; Fats=9 kcal/g; Proteins=4 kcal/g


Needed in small quantities; Prevent deficiencies; Aid in optimal functioning- vitamins and minerals


Phytochemicals and Alcohol


Chemicals made by plants which have physiological effect on body, and may be important in chronic disease prevention

Structure function of nutrients

Water: Cell rigidity; Lipids: Cell membranes; Proteins: muscles, CT, skin, organs; Minerals: bones and teeth

Energy function of nutrients

Provides fuel, calories are fuel

Metabolism regulation by nutrients

Synthesizes body tissue, hormones, proteins, and other substances-Enzymes are catalysts; Release of energy from nutrients-vitamins and minerals serve as cofactors

Fluid balance by nutrients

Sodium, Potassium, and Proteins maintain balance

Acid/Base balance by nutrients

Proteins and minerals maintain acid/base

Nutrient Density

Ratio of a food's nutrient composition to its energy value (low cal=low density)

Anecdotal Evidence

Personal experiences that help generate questions that may lead to a hypothesis.

Scientific Method

Question, Hypothesis, Experiment, Evaluate

Epidemiological study

Natural study that proves correlation not cause

Animal Studies

Interventional study; Experimental and control group, fast, cheap, may not generalize to humans

Human Studies

Interventional study; Experimental and control groups, expensive, long time, difficult control

Case-control studies

Compare those with condition vs. those without

Double-blind studies

Researchers and control group do not know who receives treatment vs. who receives placebo

Food Guide Pyramid

Created by USDA to emphasize proportionality;• Greatest proportion to least: grains, veges, fruits, dairy, meat/beans, fats

3 leading causes of death in U.S.

Heart disease, cancer, and stroke-have strong nutritional components

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

1-Adequate nutrients within caloric needs; 2-Weight mgmt.; 3-Physical activity; 4-Encourage certain food groups (fruits/veges, whole grains, milk); 5- Limit fat intake (20-35% of cals); 6- Eat carbs often; 7-Eat Potassium rich foods, limit Na intake; 8-Drink alcohol sensibly and moderately; 9-Food safety

Requirements on food labels

Total kcals, Kcals from fat, total fat, sat. fat, cholesterol, Na, total carbs, dietary fiber, sugars, portein, vit A and C, Calcium and iron


First type of diets- hunt animals, fish, forage, subsistence farmers, pastoralists; Ex- Inuits of Alaska, Plains Indians


Generate their own foods from planting

Industrial Revolution

Processed food became abundant

Main differences between traditional and modern diets

Today's diet has more fat, more refined sugar, less starch and less fiber

Food security in past

There was food, but frequent shortages occurred, caused our bodies to store fat and slow metab in shortage

Diseases of poverty

Like ancient diets- nutritional deficiencies and infectious disease

Diseases of affluence

Modern diets- nutritional excess and chronic disease

4 functions of digestion

Motility, secretion, digestion, and absorption

Small intestine

10 ft long, includes duodenum, ilium and jejunum; peristalsis; segmentation (ton of water used); Microvilli and villi for absorption


Churning-mix/break down food; secretes HCl (has mucus barrier); Reservoir for slow release of food into SI


Creates bile (an emulsfier of fat), which is stored in gall bladder


Neutralizes acids, enzymes for chemical reactions to break down stuff


Pushes food from throat to stomach using peristalsis

Large Intestine (colon)

Mucosa further breaks down sugars with disaccharides (sucrose/lactase); Water reabsorption


Reservoir for elimination

Villi draining system

1: Portal system (directly to liver)-proteins, carbs, small fats, water solubles; 2: lymphatic system- fatty acids

Functions of Water

50-60% body wt., 1: Solvent for chem reactions, 2: Dissolve solute particles, 3: Maintain acid-base balance, 4: Hydrolysis of large molecules, 5: Transport, 6: Lubrication, 7: Temp regulation


Passive transfer of water across a semipermeable membrane


Increase water excretion

# of oz in a cup?

8 oz

# of cups in a pint

2 cups (16 oz)

# of cups in quart

4 cups (32 oz)


Produces carbs: 6CO2+6H2O+sun--->C6H12O6+6O2

Glucose function

Major blood sugar, supplies energy to body (RBC and brain); Building block of body

Glucose regulation

1-Breakdown liver glycogyn to glucose; 2-Gluconeogenesis (glucose from a.a.); 3-Exercise; 4-Hormonal control (glucogen triggers glycogen, insulin drives glucose into cells


Glucose, Galactose, Fructose


Sucrose (glucose+fructose); Maltose (glucose+glucose); Lactose (glucose+galactose)


Raffrinose and Stachynose


Complex carbs, Fibers, Starches- Amylose and Amylopeptin; Glycogen (storage form)

Insoluble fiber

Cellulose, Hemicellulose; Whole grains, seedy fruits, veges; stim peristalsis, prevent constipation, increase bulk

Soluble fiber

Pectin, Guar gum, Carrageham; grains legumes fruits; decrease blood cholesterol, increase excretion

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