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Starch and Fiber- made of sugar polymers; provides long-lasting energy, less difficult for blood sugar regulation
Process of releasing energy from food, converting substance into other substances, and preparing end products for excretion; Sum of all biochemical reactions in the body
Needed in small quantities; Prevent deficiencies; Aid in optimal functioning- vitamins and minerals
Chemicals made by plants which have physiological effect on body, and may be important in chronic disease prevention
Structure function of nutrients
Water: Cell rigidity; Lipids: Cell membranes; Proteins: muscles, CT, skin, organs; Minerals: bones and teeth
Metabolism regulation by nutrients
Synthesizes body tissue, hormones, proteins, and other substances-Enzymes are catalysts; Release of energy from nutrients-vitamins and minerals serve as cofactors
Interventional study; Experimental and control group, fast, cheap, may not generalize to humans
Interventional study; Experimental and control groups, expensive, long time, difficult control
Researchers and control group do not know who receives treatment vs. who receives placebo
Food Guide Pyramid
Created by USDA to emphasize proportionality;• Greatest proportion to least: grains, veges, fruits, dairy, meat/beans, fats
3 leading causes of death in U.S.
Heart disease, cancer, and stroke-have strong nutritional components
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
1-Adequate nutrients within caloric needs; 2-Weight mgmt.; 3-Physical activity; 4-Encourage certain food groups (fruits/veges, whole grains, milk); 5- Limit fat intake (20-35% of cals); 6- Eat carbs often; 7-Eat Potassium rich foods, limit Na intake; 8-Drink alcohol sensibly and moderately; 9-Food safety
Requirements on food labels
Total kcals, Kcals from fat, total fat, sat. fat, cholesterol, Na, total carbs, dietary fiber, sugars, portein, vit A and C, Calcium and iron
First type of diets- hunt animals, fish, forage, subsistence farmers, pastoralists; Ex- Inuits of Alaska, Plains Indians
Main differences between traditional and modern diets
Today's diet has more fat, more refined sugar, less starch and less fiber
Food security in past
There was food, but frequent shortages occurred, caused our bodies to store fat and slow metab in shortage
10 ft long, includes duodenum, ilium and jejunum; peristalsis; segmentation (ton of water used); Microvilli and villi for absorption
Churning-mix/break down food; secretes HCl (has mucus barrier); Reservoir for slow release of food into SI
Large Intestine (colon)
Mucosa further breaks down sugars with disaccharides (sucrose/lactase); Water reabsorption
Villi draining system
1: Portal system (directly to liver)-proteins, carbs, small fats, water solubles; 2: lymphatic system- fatty acids
Functions of Water
50-60% body wt., 1: Solvent for chem reactions, 2: Dissolve solute particles, 3: Maintain acid-base balance, 4: Hydrolysis of large molecules, 5: Transport, 6: Lubrication, 7: Temp regulation
1-Breakdown liver glycogyn to glucose; 2-Gluconeogenesis (glucose from a.a.); 3-Exercise; 4-Hormonal control (glucogen triggers glycogen, insulin drives glucose into cells
Cellulose, Hemicellulose; Whole grains, seedy fruits, veges; stim peristalsis, prevent constipation, increase bulk
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