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40 terms

Ch. 5 Colonial Society on the Eve of Revolution, 1700-1775

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Pennsylvania Dutch
Corruption of a German word used as a term for German immigrants in Pennsylvania
frontier or West
section of the colonies where most Scot-Irish settlers were located
war or military supply
Activity in which many colonial merchant princess made fortunes that aroused fears of "Europeanization"
jayle birds
popular term for convicted criminals dumped on colonies by British authorities
plagues or epidemics
dreaded epidemics of disease, especially smallpox and diphtheria
lawyers
a once-despised profession that rose in prestige after 1750 because its practitioners defended colonial rights
triangular trade
small but profitable trade route that linked New England, Africa and the West Indies
taverns
Popular colonial centers of recreation, gossip, and political debate
established
term for tax-supported condition of congregational and anglican churches, but not of baptists, quakers, and roman catholics
Great Awakening
spectacular, emotional religious revival of the 1730's and 1740s
new lights
ministers who supported the Great Awakening against the "old light" clergy who rejected it
colleges
institutions that were founded in greater numbers as a result of the Great Awakening, although a few had been founded earlier
Zenger case
the case that established the precedent that true statements about public officials cold not be prosecuted as libel
council
the upper house of a colonial legislature, appointed by the crown or the proprietor
property
commodity that a person had to own a certain amount of in order to be eligible to vote
the high natural fertility of the colonial population
led to the increase of American population to one-third of England's in 1775
the heavy immigration of Germans, Scots-Irish, Africans and others into the colonies
resulted in the development of a colonial "melting pot" only one-half English by 1775
the large profits made by merchants as military suppliers for imperial wars
increased the wealth of the eighteenth century colonial elite
American merchants' search for non-British markets
was met by British attempts to restrict colonial trade (molasses act)
Clerical dry intellectualism and lay liberalism
weakened religious commitment in the early eighteenth century
The Great Awakening
stimulated more emotional styles of religion and greater intercolonial unity
The Zenger case
marked the beginning of freedom of printed political expression in the colonies
the appointment of unpopular or incompetent royal governors to colonies
prompted colonial assemblies to withhold royal governors' salaries
upper-class fear of "democratic excesses" by poor whies
reinforced colonial property qualifications for voting
the lack of artistic concerns, cultural tradition, and leisure in the colonies
forced the migration of colonial artists to Britain to study and pursue artistic careers
Philadelphia
leading city of he colonies; home of Benjamin Franklin
African-Americans
largest non-English group in the colonies
Scots-Irish
group that gettled the frontier, made whiskey, and hated the british and other government authorities
Paxton Boys and Regulators
Scot-Irish frontiersmen who protested against colonial elites of Pennsylvania and North Carolina
Patrick Henry
eloquent lawyer-orator who argued in defense of colonial rights
Molasses Act
attempt by British authorities to squelch colonial trade with French Weset Indies
Anglican church
established religion in southern colonies and New York; weakened by lackadaisical clergy and too-close ties with British crown
Jonathan Edwards
brilliant New england theologian who instigated the Great Awakening
George Whitefield
itinerant British evangelist who spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies
Phillis Wheatly
former slave who became a poet at an early age
Benjamin Franklin
author, scientist, printer, "first civilized American"
John Peter Zenger
colonial printer whose case helped begin freedom of the press
Lord Cornbury
worst example of a corrupt and incompetent royal governor
Baptists
Non established religious group that benefited from the Great Awakening
John Singleton Copley
colonial painter who studied and worked in Britain