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A & P Ch. 6 Integumentary System (Homework)

Anatomy & Physiology, BIOL 2113 Spring 2016 GPTC
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The integument consists of the epidermis, which is composed of _____________, and the dermis, which is composed primarily of ____________ connective tissue.
stratified squamous epithelium, dense irregular
Which statement is true regarding the subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)?
It stabilizes the position of the skin and binds it to underlying structures.
You accidentally cut your fingernail too far, causing a sharp pain and some bleeding. Which part of your nail was injured?
Free edge
Lanula
Hyponchyium
Nail bed
Nail bed
Select the way in which sweat glands function in homeostasis.
Production of vitamin D3
Temperature regulation
Protection
Sensory perception
Temperature regulation
Which of the following is not a type of hair?
Lanugo
Vellus
Keratin
Terminal
All of these choices are correct.
Keratin
Match the hair structure with its description.

1. Protrudes above the surface of the skin
2. Central axis of the hair
3. Portion of the connective tissue that surrounds the epithelial root sheath
4. Contains the hair; consists of epithelial and dermal root sheaths
5. Expanded knob at the base of the hair root
6. The portion of the hair that is below the surface of the skin
7. Forms the bulk of the hair; consists of cells containing hard keratin
8. Outer layer of the hair; single layer of cells containing hard keratin
9. Mass of epithelial cells within the bulb that produce the hair

(Root, Medulla, Matrix, Dermal Root Sheath, Hair Bulb, Hair Shaft, Cortex, Hair Follicle, Cuticle)
1. Hair Shaft
2. Medulla
3. Dermal Root Sheath
4. Hair Follicle
5. Hair Bulb
6. Root
7. Cortex
8. Cuticle
9. Matrix
Contraction of the arrector pili muscles causes the hair follicle to

resist extraction.
lie at an oblique angle next to the skin.
become perpendicular to the skin, resulting in the hair "standing on end."
release the hair root.
become perpendicular to the skin, resulting in the hair "standing on end."
Match the major skin gland with its description.

1. Produce sebum, an oily substance rich in lipids
2. Consist of eccrine and apocrine glands

Sweat Glands, Sebaceous Glands
1. Sebaceous Glands
2. Sweat Glands
The sweat glands that produce a watery substance and are associated with exercise and stress are the _________ sweat glands, while glands that produce an organic substance that causes body odor are the __________ sweat glands.

merocrine, eccrine
holocrine, merocrine
sebaceous, apocrine
eccrine, apocrine
eccrine, apocrine
Match the structure of the nail with its description or function.

1. Narrow band of epidermis extending from the margin of the nail wall onto the nail body

2. Whitish, crescent shaped area at the base of the nail

3. Skin that covers the lateral and proximal edges of the nail

4. Proximal to the nail root; produces the nail

5. A region of thickened stratum corneum over which the free edge projects

6. Composed of epithelial tissue; contains the living cell layers

(Nail bed, Cuticle, Lunula, Nail matrix, Hyponychium, Nail fold)
1. Cuticle
2. Lunula
3. Nail fold
4. Nail matrix
5. Hyponychium
6. Nail bed
Match the structure with its protective function.

1. Protects against abrasion; contains melanin, which absorbs damaging UV light

2. Protects against abrasion; acts as a heat insulator, protects the eyes against foreign objects

3. Produce secretions that create an environment unsuitable for some microorganisms

4. Protect the ends of the fingers and toes from damage; can be used in defense

(Glands, Skin, Nails, Hair)
1. Skin
2. Hair
3. Glands
4. Nails
As a person ages, the skin undergoes what change?

Elastic fibers become more elastic
Epidermal dendritic cells increase in number
The subcutaneous tissue loses adipose tissue
Hair follicles produce thicker hairs
The subcutaneous tissue loses adipose tissue
The dermis is composed largely of

fibrous connective tissue.
dense regular connective tissue.
stratified squamous epithelium.
adipose tissue.
dense irregular connective tissue.
dense irregular connective tissue.
Melanin is produced and stored in

melanocytes.
the basement membrane.
the dermis.
keratinocytes.
melanocytes.
Exposure to ultraviolet light darkens skin by stimulating synthesis of

melatonin.
carotene.
hemoglobin.
cyanin.
melanin.
melanin.
The layer of the epidermis that includes melanocytes and a single row of columnar cells that undergo mitosis is the

stratum corneum.
stratum granulosum.
stratum spinosum.
stratum basale.
stratum melaneum.
stratum basale.
The subcutaneous layer of skin consists of

epithelial tissue.
areolar and adipose tissue.
epithelium and areolar tissue.
adipose tissue and skeletal muscle tissue.
blood and nerves.
areolar and adipose tissue.
Skin cells play an important role in producing

vitamin A.
vitamin B.
vitamin C.
vitamin D.
vitamin E.
vitamin D.
Milk and ear wax

are not secretions.
are secreted from modified sweat glands.
are secreted from modified sebaceous glands.
are in the blood.
are synthetic substances.
are secreted from modified sweat glands.
Which of the following is a normal response to excessive loss of body heat in a cold environment?

Dermal blood vessels constrict
Sweat glands become active
Smooth muscles relax
Dermal blood vessels dilate
Hairs are retracted into their follicles
Dermal blood vessels constrict
Sweat cools the body by

convection.
conduction.
evaporation.
radiation.
hydration.
evaporation.
The oily, waxy secretion called sebum is produced by

sweat glands.
hair follicles.
sebaceous glands.
apocrine glands.
the dermis.
sebaceous glands.
Nails are scalelike modifications of which layer of the integument?

Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum
Stratum corneum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum corneum
The skin's response to severe injuries or burns, when functional activities are not restored, is called

regeneration.
granulation.
evaporation.
fibrosis.
fibrosis.
Match the type of skin cancer with its description.

1. Malignant melanoma
2. Squamous cell carcinoma
3. Basal cell carcinoma

(Most deadly type, Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum, Most common; originates in stratum basale)
1. Most deadly type
2. Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
3. Most common; originates in stratum basale
Three classes of burns
First Degree
Second Degree
Third Degree
First Degree
Cause redness, slight edema, and pain
Seldom leave scars
May heal in a few days
Second Degree
Part of the dermis is involved
Severe sunburns and many scalds
Third Degree
All of the dermis is affected
Sometimes muscle and bone are destroyed
Skin grafts may be required
Three most common types of skin cancer.
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Malignant Melanoma
Basal Cell Carcinoma
The most common type of skin cancer.
Seldom spreads to other tissues.
Arises from the deepest layer of the epidermis.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Raised, reddened, scaley appearance.
Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum.
Lesions usually appear on scalp, ears, lower lip, or dorsum of hand.
May metastasize to other parts of the body.
Malignant Melanoma
The least common skin cancer.
Arises from the cells that protect from UV Light.
Caused by mutations commonly found in moles.
If metastasized, the deadliest skin cancer.
Epidermis, Dermis, and Subcutaneous layer are affected by third-degree burns.
True
Damaged tissues are normally repaired through replacement of damaged or dead cells through a process called fibrosis.

True or False
False
Which type of connective tissue is found in the papillary layer of the dermis and contains all of the cell types of connective tissue proper?
Areolar
Which type of connective tissue predominates in the deep portion of the dermis, where it lends strength to the skin?
Dense irregular
Which feature is found in both cartilage and bone?
Lacuna
What unit of bone consists of a central canal (containing blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels) surrounded by concentric rings of calcified matrix?
Osteon
Some bone interiors contain hemopoietic tissue, which functions in:
producing blood cells
The way in which sweat glands function in homeostasis.
Temperature regulation
Sweat glands and sebaceous glands develop from which layer of the integument?
stratum basale of the epidermis
The sloughed off cells of the periderm mix with sebum during the fetal period, creating a waterproof coating called _____________.
vernix caseosa
Protrudes above the surface of the skin
Hair shaft
Central axis of the hair
Medulla
Portion of the connective tissue that surrounds the epithelial root sheath
Dermal root sheath
Contains the hair; consists of epithelial and dermal root sheaths
Hair follicle
Expanded knob at the base of the hair root
Hair bulb
The portion of the hair that is below the surface of the skin
Root
Forms the bulk of the hair; consists of cells containing hard keratin
Cortex
Outer layer of the hair; single layer of cells containing hard keratin
Cuticle
Mass of epithelial cells within the bulb that produce the hair
Matrix
The skin appears yellowish if a person eats too much
Carotene
The layer of the epidermis that includes melanocytes and a single row of columnar cells that undergo mitosis is the
stratum basale
Reddened skin reflects
dilated blood vessels, sending more blood to the dermis
The oily, waxy secretion called sebum is produced by
apocrine glands
The skin's response to severe injuries or burns, when functional activities are not restored, is called ____________
fibrosis
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