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Biomed Pharmacology HSAD 020 Exam #1
Terms in this set (52)
The study of the movement of drugs through the body is termed:
Drugs administered "sublingually" (under the tongue) and drugs administered orally are absorbed mostly in the __________ and __________, respectively.
Liver and small intestine.
Rectal drug administration may be used in place of oral drug administration to avoid:
Vomitting, unconscious, or unable to swallow.
The main advantage of administering a drug through "transdermal patches" is:
They provide continuous controlled release. Allow for slow continuous absorption over hours or days, minimizing side effects.
With the exception of the mode employed with some gas anesthetics, the fastest mode of drug administration is:
Intravenous Administration (IV).
Drawback(s) to intravenous injection, as opposed to other forms of administration, of drugs include:
1) Rapid rate of absorption leaves little time to respond to an unexpected drug reaction or accidental overdose. 2) Administration by injection requires the use of sterile techniques. 3) Once a drug is administered by injection, it cannot be recalled.
A drug that can pass rapidly and easily through the capillary wall surrounding the brain must be:
Lipophilic/highly lipid soluble...
The membranes that separate fetal blood from maternal blood:
Most of the products of body metabolism are excreted by the:
The majority of drugs leave the body in:
Which of the following factor(s) can alter the rate at which drugs are metabolized?
1) Genetic variations may affect how different people respond to medications.
2) If more than one drug is present in the body, the drugs may interact with one another either in a therapeutically beneficial way or in a way that can adversely affect the patient.
The time for the plasma level of drug to fall by 50 percent is termed the:
Drug Half Life.
During the process of behavioral drug tolerance, after repeated, frequent use of a drug in the same environment:
Behavioral Conditioning Process. In such situations environmental cues routinely paired with drug administration will become conditioned stimuli that elicit a conditioned response.
"Pharmacodynamic" tolerance occurs in the __________; "metabolic" tolerance occurs in the ________.
Brain and Liver.
The ability of receptors in the brain to adapt to the continued presence of a drug is termed:
Once a person becomes physically dependent upon a drug:
Needs the drug to avoid the withdrawal symptoms that occur if the drug is not taken.
The study of how a drug interacts with a receptor is termed:
The naturally occurring compounds that bind to receptors are termed:
A drug that exerts an effect similar to, and occupies the same receptor site as, the naturally occurring compound is termed:
A drug that blocks the effect of, and occupies the same receptor site as, the naturally occurring compound by is termed:
Exposure to a drug that inhibits the breakdown of a neurotransmitter:
May cause panic attacks common for MAOI's.
The intensity of a drug's effect is proportional to:
The percentage of total receptors occupied by a drug.
Potency refers to:
Measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity. Potency varies inversely with the amount of drug required to produce this effect- the more potent the drug, the lower the amount required to produce the effect.
The therapeutic index refers to:
The ration of the LD50 to the ED50 is used as an index of the relative safety of the drug.
The therapeutic index is defined as:
The ratio of the toxic dose and the therapeutic dose of a drug, which provides a measure of drug safety.
Side effects of a drug:
Drug-induced effect that accompanies the primary effect for which the drug is administered. Some drugs may cause reactions that are very serious, including serous allergies, blood disorders, liver or kidney toxicity, or abnormalities in fetal development, and death.
The term placebo most often refers to:
Substance that may elicit a significant reaction largely because of the mental set of the patient or the physical setting in which the drug is taken.
Possible mechanisms for the placebo effect include:
Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials.
The hypothalamus is a motivating force behind all the following behaviors, EXCEPT:
The rage response.
Members of the limbic system include:
Amygdala (Emotion) and Hippocampus (Memory).
The basic cellular unit of the central nervous system is the:
Brain and spinal cord. To generate and transmit nerve impulses.
The two major divisions of the nervous systems are the ________ and the __________.
The central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
The two main subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system are the ________ nervous system and the ________ nervous system.
Autonomic and Somatic.
The heightened physical arousal or fight and flight response involve the ________ branch of the nervous system.
Which lobe processes auditory information?
The visional information is processed by the ___________ lobe.
The hippocampus plays a key role in?
The _______________ is strongly linked to addiction behaviors and is part of the ventral tegmental area and the reward circuit.
NAc. Nucleus Accumbens.
The term "exocytosis" applies, in neurophysiology, to:
Vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane and release transmitters into the synapse.
The nucleus of a neural cell is found in the:
Inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) results in:
Formation of covalent bonds with the enzyme preventing it from functioning. Enhanced stimulation of the muscle.
Reversible acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitors are used clinically to treat:
The catecholamines include all of the following neurotransmitters, EXCEPT:
Include: Dopamine and Norephinephrine.
The mechanism of action of the MAO inhibitor antidepressants is:
Bind to and block the enzyme monoamine oxidase. Increases levels of norpineohrine and serotonin in the brain.
The brain site responsible for producing the majority of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in the brain is?
Peripheral nervous system.
Antipsychotic medications chiefly affect the neurotransmitter:
Drugs that affect the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) are used clinically to treat:
Schizophrenia, parkinsonism, affective disorders, sexual activity, addiction, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
The neurotransmitters most clearly implicated in reward mechanisms and orienting responses, respectively, are:
The brain site responsible for producing the majority of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain is:
Upper brain stem. Particularly in the Pons and Medulla. Structure is called the Raphe Nuclei.
The neurotransmitter thought to be involved in a variety of processes including sleep, sex, affective disorders, and pain is?
The most common inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in the brain are, respectively
Acetylcholine is a peptide neurotransmitter. True or False?
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