25 terms

Cancer Quiz

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Cancer is...
uncontrolled cell division
Cancer is caused by a change in the DNA called a...
mutation
Cancer can be __________ or changed from the _____________
inherited
enviroment
Cancer is or is not contagious
NOT
Tumors
form masses of cells
Tumor cells that break loose and spread in the body (also called cancer)
metastasis
How are cancer cells different than normal cells?
1) Do not respond to signals and divide uncontrollably
2) Don't stop at checkpoints and do not do apoptosis
3) Do not stop dividing when they contact other cells
Contact Inhibition
normal cells stop dividing when they touch other cells
Benign Tumor
Tumor cells remain at original site. The cells lack the ability to spread. Can be removed surgically or killed by radiation
Malignant Tumor
some tumor cells are capable of escaping to a new part of the body
Proto-oncogenes
normal genes that regulate cell growth
oncogenes
- mutated proto-oncogenes
- keep dividing without stopping
- green light is always on
Tumor suppressor genes
genes that stop the cell cycle or promote apoptosis
STOP
Cells attract new blood vessel growth called
angiogenesis
Biopsy
way to diagnose cancer by surgically removing piece of tissue and examining it
Causes of cancers (dont need to know all)
- Random mutations- genetics (about 10%)
- Chemicals: asbestos, cigarettes
- Formaldehyde, pesticides, nitrates
- radiation
- certain viruses (HPV)
- poor diet obesity
Chemotherapy
drugs that kill cells that are dividing rapidly
ex: cancer cells, hair follicle cells
Radiation
uses high energy radiation to shrink tumors or eliminate cancer cells.
surgery
surgically removes cancer cells or tumor
Prevention of cancer
- Genetic screening (BRCA 1 and BRCA 2)
- Do not smoke, drink too much, proper diet, exercise, prevent sunburns, proper health screenings.
- proper diet
- exercise
staging
describes the severity of a person's cancer
stage 1
tumor limited to original location
stage 2
limited spread
stage 3
regional spread
stage 4
spread to other areas of the body
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