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60 terms

Foreign Policy Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
Monroe Doctrine 1823
outlined differences between Europe and Americas -- foundation of exceptionalism
two spheres concept
designed by Monroe Doctrine, outlined the power politics focus of Europe versus the free states of the Americas
Roosevelt Corollary 1904
extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Wilsonian idealism
liberty and democracy of the United States is worthy of emulation and should be promoted in the world, moral principles should guide (active) US foreign policy, cooperation must replace power politics and aggression
National Origin Act 1924
limited the flow of immigration because of the fear of communism and foreign influences (notable social isolationism)
Smoot-Hawley Tariff 1930
raises tariff rates, tried to protect American business, ended up deepening the world depression
Notable economic isolationism
Smoot-Hawley Tariff
Notable social isolationism
National Origin Act 1924
Notable political isolationism
American refusal to join the League of Nations
Nixon
realist President focused on China and keeping global equilibrium
Carter
idealist President focused on domestic American values, human rights and global cooperation
Reagan
realist President who increased defense spending greatly and focused on reviving containment
Tet Offensive
North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam
H.W. Bush
realist President who demonstrated great caution in foreign policy, end of Cold War focused on building new world order
Truman Doctrine:
to suppress possibility of communist insurgency in Greece and Turkey, lobbied Congress to provide military and economic aid
Eisenhower Doctrine
declared the policy of the US to intervene militarily in the Middle East to protect legitimate governments from communist subversion
Nixon Doctrine
encouraged Asian allies to wean themselves off US military aid in war on communism
Carter Doctrine
young-cold-war like rhetoric that committed the US to protect the countries of the Persian Gulf from outside interference
Clinton
liberal internationalism, seen as domestic policy specialist, enlargement and selective engagement
Bush Doctrine
declares US to go after all terrorist with a global reach and the states which harbor them
Liberal internationalism
a liberal IR theory which stresses the role of domestic institutions, such as democratic governance, in aiding international cooperation and peace
enlargement
use of free markets to promote global democracy
selective engagement
realism "lite" US acts abroad when national interests are at stake, peacekeeping not peace building
George W. Bush
classical realist at first then defensive realist
defensive realism
importance of security as motivating factor, coalitional effort only to combat terrorism, internal characteristics of other regimes matter
Resolution 1441
Iraq breached the UN weapons agreement of post- Gulf War
Washington farewell address
warned against parties, sectionalism and international entanglements; economic relations but no political bonds to other nations
Roosevelt
President who planned for total defeat and disarming of adversaries post WWII, prevent economic depression, global security organization, work with USSR
Yalta Axioms
cold war driven by power realities and struggle for post-war hegemony between USSR and US
Riga Axioms
cold war driven by ideological considerations and differences between USSR and US
Yalta Conference
agreements that signaled American involvement in Europe post-war, also declared a liberated democratic Europe
Truman
president who supported Wilsonian Idealism and whose advisors had strong anti USSR sentiments
Long Telegram to D.C.
Written by George Kennan as Mr. X, cautioned the Soviet's insecurity and determination to advance interests and disrupt American global authority
Nokolai Novikov
rebuttal to Long Telegram by soviet ambassador arguing US intentions for global supremacy
Tripartite Treaty Alliance
showed that getting tough against Soviets proved successful after forced removal of Soviets from Iran
Containment
term authored by Kennan as Mr. X, had 3 initiatives
three initiatives of containment
1) establishing regional political-military alliances, 2) economic and military assistance to friendly nations 3) domestic cold war through NSC-68
Mutual Defense Assistance Act 1949
signed after Soviets tested atomic bomb, provided military aid in bordering states of USSR
NSC-68
four policy options for responding to soviets, chose the fourth to build rapidly the strength of the free world
Korean War
US abandoned isolationism for globalism officially at this point after unilaterally enforcing containment
Munich Syndrome
fear of appeasing an aggressor as Chamberlain had done with Hitler, continued use of violence in Cold War
Nonaligned Movement
began by Nehru in India, major policy block to bipolar approach of US, most newly independent states joined
Cuban Missile Crisis
violation of Soviet commitment to introduce only defensive weapons into countries, decision by US is naval quarantine
falling dominoes
Eisenhower referred to this spread of communism in Asia before Vietnam war
Gulf of Tonkin resolution
Congress authorizes military involvement in Vietnam war
Kissinger
national security advisor under Nixon who emphasized balance of power politics and the idea of linkage, hated any inhibition of role of statesman
linkage
all foreign policy behavior linked to behavior of another country, need for stabilization against revolutionary forces
Detente
Nixon visited China, relaxation of tensions in Helsinki, SALT talks
Shanghai communique
In this agreement, President Richard Nixon and Mao decided to open communication between China and the United States.
Helsinki Accords
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries
Curtis-Wright Export Corporation vs. U.S.
most important and sweeping grant of power to executive in foreign policy, court held that the delegation of power to the executive NOT unconstitutional because dealt with external affairs
Missouri v. Holland
court case that enlarged the treaty powers of President
Belmont v. Pink
Court case that gave legitimacy to executive agreements as the law of the land, despite not having congressional actions
Public Law 107-40 and 243
Congressional deference to President after 9/11 to fight Iraq
Rational Choice Theory unit of analysis
individual actor in a bureaucracy
Organizational Process Model unit of analysis
choices are outputs of large organizations which function according to regular patterns of behavior
Bureaucratic politics Model unit of analysis
Choices are outcomes of various bargaining games between players in hierarchical nat'l gvt.
Brookings Institution
Most liberal think tanks
Heritage Foundation and Cato Institute
Most conservative think tanks
AEI and CSIS
Most centered think tanks