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16 terms

Chapter 7-Cells

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cell theory
All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure & function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells.
Organelle
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions w/in a eukaryotic cell
Nucleus
structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) & controls its activitiesTranslation of mRNA happens here
Prokaryote
unicellular organism w/out a nucleus; their genetic material is not in a nucleus
Eukaryote
unicellular or multicellular organism whose cells contain nuclei; genetic material is contained in a nucleus
Unicellular / Multicellular
Unicellular- single-celled organismMulticellular-organisms that are made up of many cells
Lipid Bi-Layer
2 layers of lipid (fatty) moleculesfound in cell membrane
Semi-Permeable Membrane
only allows certain or specific items to pass throughcell membrane is semi-permeable
Active Transport
going against the concentration gradientenergy-requiring process that moves material in the opposite direction or across a cell membrane against a concentration differencegoing from a low concentration to a high concentrationrequired energy- ATP used in cellular respiration & sunlight in Photosynthesis
Facilitated Transport
helper molecule required to get through semi-permeable membrane by protein channelsno energy required, it moves w/ the concentration gradientgoing from high concentration to low concentrationEX- salt, sugars, ions, ATP SYNTHASE
Osmosis
diffusion of water across the semi-permeable cell membranewater molecules will move from areas or solutions w/ high concentration to areas w/ lower concentration
Diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated; once they are equal they are in equilibrium; molecules cont. to move even after equilibrium
Cell
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that separates the cell from its surroundsbasic unit of all forms of lifesmallest levelspecialized function
Tissue
made of cellsgroup of cells working together to do a job
Organ
group of tissues working together to perform closely related functions
Organ System
group of organs working together to perform a specific function