Exam 3 Social Psychology

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Terms in this set (...)

The Power of the Situation
situation contains a subtle yet powerful forces that direct and constrain behavior
Social norms
standard behavior established and enforced by group
Local Norms
arise in a particular situation
( speak quietly at a library, wear bathing suit at pool)
Global Norms
pervade cultural or social context
(hand shake, move out when you are an adult)
Conformity
adjusting behavior or thinking to coincide with group standard
Why do we conform?
1) we want to be right
2) want to be liked
Informational Social Influence
conformity out of a desire to gain information
Information Social Influence
(Arises When)
1) Uncertainty is high; desire to gain information is high
2) Situation is a crisis
3) Others are experts
Normative Social Influence
conformity out of desire to gain rewards and avoid punishments
Normative Social Influence
(Arises When)
1) even when "objectively" correct behavior is obvious
2) dominant behavior patter shown by most people (the majority) produces conformity
Factors that Influence Conformity
1) group size- larger group= more conformity (to a point/after 4 levels off)
2) group cohesiveness= uniformity, only one is needed in order for conformity to plummet
Compliance
publicly acting in accord with a direct request
Internal Compliance
acting and believing in line with request
(private acceptance)
External Compliance
accepting request despite disagreeing with it (surface changes)
Mindless Compliance
following requests/norms without deliberating
Compliance Dual-Process Model
...
Motivations that increase Compliance
1) foot in the door
2) low balling technique
Foot in the door
First Step - small request
Second Step- make related larger request
Low-Balling Technique
make low offer for compliance, increase commitment (leads to post-decision dissonance reduction)
Why to we obey?
1) we want to be right and liked
2) norm of obedience
3) authorities as esperts
Factors that Influence Obedience
1) legitimacy of authority
2) incremental orders
3) conformity
Entitativity
seeing a group as a meaningful entity
Types of Groups
1) intimacy
2) task
3) social categories
4) clusters of people
Motivation to be a Part of Groups
1) need to belong (fundamental need)
2) need to achieve goals
Social Facilitation
perform well when others are present
Social Loafing
reduction in individual output when efforts are pooled
why?
1) less responsible for outcome
2) no accountability
3) less self awareness
Diverse Groups
1) generate wider range of solutions
2) members tend to be less committed
3) diversity in beginning is not helpful leads to outperform other groups
Deindividuation
submersion of an individual in a crowd can result in:
1) reduction of normal inhibitions and constraints on behavior
2) increase impulsive behavior
Antecedents of Deindividuation
1) anonymity- no one knows who you are
2) reduced responsibility
3) physiological arousal
4) group size
Experience of Deindividuation
loss of self-awareness
- lack of concern of others thoughts
- low accessibility of personal values
Deindividuated Behavior
1) extreme, atypical or polarized behavior
2) positive behaviors can emerge in some conditions
Majority Influence
1) informational social influence- confirmation bias in group discussion
2) normative social influence- group discussion highlights norms
Minority Influence
Informational Social Influence
1) Stable Views
2) Uncomprimising but reasonable position
3) Vocal
4) Disrupts Established Norm leads to uncertainty in majority
Types of Social Dilemmas
1) Commons Dilemmas- resources replenish slowly
2) Public Good Dilemmas- Shared need (hospitals)