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Pg 297


caused by the human immunodefciency virus (HIV) and supresses the immune system


requiring oxygen in order to live and grow

airborne precautions

used for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei, small particles of evaporated droplets taht contain microorganisms and remain suspended in the air or on dust particles


aseptic control that inhibits,retards growth of,or kills pathogenic organisms;not effective against spores and viruses


being free from infection


piece of equipment used to sterilize articles by way of steam under pressure and/or dry heat


one celled microorganisms, some of which are beneficial and some of which cause disease

causative agent

pathogen, such as bacterium or virus


the cleaning proces employed in an ultrasonic unit ; bubbles explode to drive cleaning solution onto article being cleaned

chain of infection

factors that lead to the transmission or spread of disease

chemical disinfection

substances or solutions are used to disinfect articles; does not always kill spores and viruses


free from organisms causing disease

communicable disease

disease that is transmitted from one individual to another

contact precautions

must be followed for by any patients known or suspected to be infected with epidermiologically important microorganisms that can be transmitted by either direct or indirect contact


containing infection or infectious organisms or germs


aseptic control method that destroys pathogens but does not usually kill spores and viruses

droplet precautions

must be followed by patient known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by large particle droplets expelled during coughing, sneezing, talking, or laughing


infection or disease originating within the body


infection or disease orginating outside of or external to the body


any substance or object that adheres to and transmits infectious material


group of simple, plantlike animals that live on dead organic matter

hepatitis B

inflamation of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus HBV which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids

hepatitis C

inflammation of the liver caused by HCV transmitted by exposure to infected blood


small,living plant or animal not visible to the naked eye

mode of transmission

way in which a pathogen can be transmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live


a microorganism that is not capable of causing a disease


pertaining to or orginating in a health care facility such as a hospital


infections that occur when the body's defenses are weak


disease producing organisms

personal protective equipment

items such as gloves, gowns, masks, protective eyewear,and hair coverings are used to protect the nurse from infectious organisms

portal of entry

a pathway by which the causative agent enters the host

portal of exit

the way a microbe leaves the body when a pathogenic cycle is over

protective isolation

technique used to provide care to patients requiring protection from organisms in the eniviroment


microscopic, one celled animals often found in decayed materials and contaminated water


anything in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies


parasitic microorganisms that live on other living organisms

standard precautions

recommendations that must be followed to prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms by way of blood and body fluids


free of all organisms, including spores and viruses

sterile field

an area that is set up for certain procedures and is free from all organisms


process that results in total destruction of all microorganisms; also, surgical procedure that prevents conception of a child

susceptible host

host not possessing resistance against an infectious agent

transmission-based isolation precautions

method or technique of caring for patients who have communicable diseases


piece of equipment that cleans with sound waves


one of a large group of very small microorganisms, many of which cause disease


not requiring oxygen in order to live and grow; able to thrive in the absence of oxygen

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