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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 1
Terms in this set (127)
of body parts and their relationships to one another.
(study of the
of living organisms)
Major subdivisions include gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, and developmental anatomy.
*derived from the Greek words meaning "to cut apart"
of the body, in other words, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities
of living organisms)
Physiology is explained by chemical and physical principles.
Gross (macroscopic) anatomy
the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys
all the structures (muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, etc.) in a particular region of the body, such as the abdomen or leg, are examined at the same time
*subdivision of gross anatomy
body structure is studied system by system
*For example, when studying the cardiovascular system, you would examine the heart and the blood levels of the entire body
(Pertaining to the whole body)
*subdivision of gross anatomy
the study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
*you use surface anatomy when you identify the bulging muscles beneath a bodybuilder's skin, and clinicians use it to locate appropriate blood vessels in which to feel pulses and draw blood
*subdivision of gross anatomy
deals with structures too small to be seen with the naked eye
considers the cells of the body
*subdivision of microscopic anatomy
the study of tissues
(Branch of anatomy dealing with the microscopic structure of tissues)
*subdivision of microscopic anatomy
traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span
concerns developmental changes that occur before birth
*subdivision of developmental anatomy
concerns kidney function and urine production
(Pertaining to the kidney)
explains the workings of the nervous system
examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels
principle of complementarity of structure and function
-a key concept
-function always reflects structure. That is what a structure can do depends on its specific form
-anatomy and physiology are inseparable: what a body can do depends on the unique architecture of its parts.
Levels of structural organization
From simplest to the most complex are: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organismal.
Examples of interrelationships among body organ system
-the simplest level of the structural hierarchy
- At this level, atoms, tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules such as water and protiens
-Molecules, in turn, associate in specific ways to form organelles, basic components of microscopic cells
*atoms combine to form molecules
-cells are the smallest units of living things
-all cells have some common functions, but individual cells vary widely in size and shape, reflecting their unique functions in the body
*cells are made up of molecules
-Tissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function
-4 basic tissue types in the human body
*epithelium tissue - covers the body surface and lines its cavities.
*muscle tissue - provides movement
*connective tissue - supports and protects body organs
*nervous tissue - provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses
*Tissues consist of similar types of cells
-An organ is a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (four is more common) that performs a specific function for the body
-extremely complex functions become impossible
*organs are made up of different types of tissues
-the highest level of organization is the organism, the living human being
-represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alive
*The human organism is made up of many organ systems
Organ system level
-organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up an organ system
*Organ systems consist of different organs that work together closely
Maintain its boundaries
Every living organism must maintain its boundaries so that its internal environment (its inside) remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it (its outside)
-The activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another by running or swimming, and manipulating the external environment with our nimble fingers.
-Also occurs when substances such as blood, foodstuffs, and urine are propelled through internal organs
on the cellular level, the muscle cells ability to move by shortening
the ability to sense changes (which serve as stimuli) in the environment and then respond to them
(ability to respond to stimuli)
the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood
(A series of catabolic steps in which complex food molecules are broken down to their building blocks by enzymes)
Metabolism "a state of change"
a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within body cells. It includes breaking substances into their simpler building blocks (more specifically, the process of catabolism), synthesizing more complex cellular structures from simpler substances (anabolism), and using nutrients and oxygen to produce (via cellular respiration) ATP, the energy-enrich molecules that power cellular activities
(Sum total of the chemical reactions occurring in the body cells)
the process of removing wastes, or excreta, from the body.
(Elimination of waste products from the body.)
occurs at the cellular and the organismal level
11 organ system
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems
The immune system is a functional system closely associated with the lymphatic system.
Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
(Skin and its derivatives; provides the external protective covering of the body)
Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.
(System of protection and support composed primarily of bone and cartilage)
Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture, and produces heat.
(The organ system consisting of the skeletal muscles of the body and their connective tissue attachments)
As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
(Fast-acting control system that triggers muscle contraction or gland secretion)
Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
(Body system that includes internal organs that secrete hormones)
Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood.
(Organ system that distributes the blood to deliver nutrients and remove wastes)
Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
(System consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph; drains excess tissue fluid from the extracellular space. The nodes provide sites for immune surveillance.)
Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
(Organ system that carries out gas exchange; includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs.)
Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
(System that processes food into absorbable units and eliminates indigestible wastes.)
Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
(System primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.)
Male reproductive system
Overall function is to produce offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract.
Female reproductive system
Overall function is to produce offspring. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.
Necessary life functions
All living organisms carry out certain vital functional activities necessary for life, including maintenance of boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, and growth.
An increase in size of a body part or the organism as a whole. It is usually accomplished by increasing the number of cells.
Includes nutrients, water, oxygen, and appropriate temperature and atmospheric pressure.
contain the chemical substances used for energy and cell building
(Chemical substances taken in via the diet are used for energy and cell building)
All the nutrients in the world are useless unless
is also available. Because chemical reactions that release energy from foods are
reactions that require oxygen, human cells can survive for only a few minutes without oxygen.
accounts for 60-80% of our body weight and is the single most abundant chemical substance in the body
Normal body temperature
If chemical reactions are to continue at life-sustaining rates,
normal body temperature
must be maintained. As body temperature drops below 37
F), metabolic reactions become slower and slower, and finally stop. When body temperature is too high, chemical reactions occur at a frantic pace and body proteins lose their characteristic shape and stop functioning.
the force that air exerts on the surface of the body
(Force that air exerts on the surface of the body (760mm Hg at sea level).)
Walter Canon, an American physiologist of the early twentieth century, coined the word homeostasis to describe its ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously.
Dynamic equilibrium of the internal environment. All body systems contribute, but the nervous and endocrine systems are most important.
It is necessary for health.
(A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body)
Homeostatic control system
Control mechanisms of the body contain at least three elements that work together: receptor(s), control center, and effector(s).
The first component is some type of sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes, called
, by sending information (input) to the second component, the
. Input flows from the receptor to the control center along the so-called
((1)A cell or nerve ending of a sensory neuron specialized to respond to particular types of stimuli; (2) protein that binds specificaly with other molecules, e.g., neurotransmitters, hormones, paracrines, antigens.)
, which is the level or range at which a variable is to be maintained. It also analyzes the input it receives and determines the appropriate response or course of action. Information (output) then flows from the control center to the third component, the
, along the
(To help you remember the difference between
, you might note that information traveling along the afferent pathway approaches the control center and efferent information exits from the control center)
provides the means for the control center's response (output) to the stimulus. The results of the response then feed back to influence the effect of the stimulus, either reducing it (in negative feedback) so that the whole control process is shut off, or enhancing it (in positive feedback) so that the whole process continues at an even faster rate.
(Organ, gland, or muscle capable of being activated by nerve endings.)
negative feedback mechanisms
Most homeostatic control mechanisms are
negative feedback mechanisms
. In these systems, the output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity. The mechanisms cause the variable to change in a direction opposite to that of the initial change, returning it to its "ideal" value; thus the name "negative" feedback mechanisms.
Reduce the effect of the original stimulus, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis. Body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate and depth, and blood levels of glucose and certain ions are regulated.
positive feedback mechanisms
positive feedback mechanisms
, the result or response enhances the original stimulus so that the response is accelerated. The feedback mechanism is
because the change that results proceeds in the same direction as the initial change, causing the variable to deviate further and further from its original value or range.
Intensify the initial stimulus, leading to an enhancement of the response. They rarely contribute to homeostasis, but blood clotting and labor contractions are regulated by such mechanisms.
Homeostasis is so important that most disease can be regarded as a result of its disturbance, a condition called
Disturbance in homeostasis. Occurs when the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over.
With age, the efficiency of negative feedback mechanisms declines, and positive feedback mechanisms occur more frequently. These changes underlie certain disease conditions.
the body is erect with feet slightly apart. This position is easy to remember because it resembles "standing at attention," except that the palms face forward and the thumbs point away from the body
allow us to explain where one body structure is in relation to another
terms that describe body directions and orientation include: superior/inferior; anterior/posterior; ventral/dorsal; medial/lateral; intermediate; proximal/distal; and superficial/deep
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
The head is superior to the abdomen.
Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
The navel is inferior to the chin.
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
The breastbone is anterior to the spine.
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
The heart is posterior to the breastbone.
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
The heart is medial to the arm.
Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
The arms are lateral to the chest.
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
The collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder.
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
The elbow is proximal to the wrist.
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
The knee is distal to the thigh.
Toward or at the body surface
The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles.
Away from the body surface; more internal
The lungs are deep to the skin.
makes up the main axis of our body, includes the head, neck, and trunk
(Relating to the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body.)
consists of the appendages, or limbs, which are attached to the body's axis
(Relating to the limbs; one of the two major divisions of the body)
used to designate specific areas within these major divisions
people vary internally as well as externally,, but extreme variations are rare
planes of the body
The body or its organs may be cut along planes, or imaginary lines, to produce different types of sections. Frequently used planes are sagittal, frontal, and transverse.
sagittal plane "arrow"
a vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
(A longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions)
median plane or midsagittal plane
a sagittal plane that lies exactly in the midline
all other sagittal planes, offset from the midline
frontal (coronal) planes
like sagittal planes, lie vertically. Frontal planes, divide the body into anterior and posterior parts. A frontal plane is also called a coronal plane "crown"
(Longitudinal (vertical) plane that divides the body or an organ into anterior and posterior parts.)
transverse or horizontal plane
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
A transverse section is also called a
(A plane running from right to left, dividing the body or an organ into superior and inferior parts)
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical plane of the body or an organ
X ray or radiograph
a shadowy negative image of internal structures
Dense structures absorb the X rays most and so appear as light areas
computer tomography (CT, formerly called computerized axial tomography, CAT)
uses a refined version of X-ray equipment
CT brain scan enhanced with radioactive xenon gas to quickly trace blood flow
dynamic spatial reconstruction (DSR)
uses ultrafast CT scanners to provide three-dimensional images of body organs from any angle and scrutinize their movements and changes in their internal volumes at normal speed, in slow motion, an at a specific moment
digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
provides an unobstructed view of small arteries
*angiography = vessel pictures
positron emission tomography (PET)
excels in observing metabolic processes
The patient is given an injection of radioisotopes tagged to biological molecules (such as glucose).
sonography or ultrasound imaging
(type of x-ray) the body is probed with pulses of high-frequency (ultrasonic) sound waves that reflect (echo) off the body's tissues. A computer analyzes the echoes to construct sectional images of the outlines of organs. It has 2 distinct advantages over other imaging techniques
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
produces high-contrast images of our soft tissues, an area in which X rays and CT scans are weak
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
maps the distribution of elements other than hydrogen to reveal more about how disease changes body chemistry
tracks blood flow into the brain in real time
M2A swallowable imaging capsule
a tiny camera that a patient swallows like a pill, and the excretes normally 8-72 hours later
As the M2A travels through the digestive tract, it photographs the small intestine and beams the color images to a small video data recorder worn on a belt or harness
dorsal body cavity
protects the fragile nervous system organs
subdivided into the cranial and spinal cavities, contains brain and spinal cord
in the skull, encases the brain
vertebral or spinal cavity
runs within the bony vertebral column, encloses the delicate spinal cord
The spinal cord is essentially a continuation of the brain, and the cranial and spinal cavities are continuous with one another.
ventral body cavity
the more anterior and larger of the closed body cavities
subdivided into the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
viscera or visceral organs
the ventral body cavity houses internal organs collectively
(viscus = an organ in a body cavity)
the superior subdivision and is surrounded by the ribs and muscles of the chest
houses the heart and lungs
The thoracic cavity is further subdivided into this each enveloping a lung, and the medial mediastinum.
(A potential space between the two layers of pleura; contains a thin film of serous fluid)
contains the pericardial cavity, which encloses the heart, and it also surrounds the remaining thoracic organs (esophagus, trachea, and others)
(The medial cavity of the thorax containing the heart, great vessels, and trachea)
the thoracic cavity is separated from the more inferior by the diaphragm, a dome-shaped muscle important in breathing
contains the liver, digestive organs, and reproductive structures
may be divided by four planes into nine abdominopelvic regions (epigastric, umbilical, hypogastric, right and left iliac, right and left lumbar, and right and left hypochondriac), or by tow planes into four quadrants
Has two parts - abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
superior portion; contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
inferior portion; lies in the bony pelvis and contains the urinary bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum
serosa or serous membrane
the walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered by a thin, double-layered membrane
(The moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities.)
the part of the membrane lining the cavity walls
(The part of the double-layered membrane that lines the walls of the ventral body cavity)
The part of the double-layered membrane that lines the outer surfaces of organs within the ventral body cavity
(The part of the double-layered membrane that lines the outer surfaces of organs within the ventral body cavity.)
visualize the relationship between the serosal layers by pushing your fist into a limp balloon
In the body, the serous membranes are separated not by air but by a thin layer of lubrication fluid, which is secreted by both membranes.
(Clear, watery fluid secreted by cells of a serous membrane)
serous membrane relationships
four abdominal quadrants
right upper quadrant (RUQ)
left upper quadrant (LUQ)
right lower quadrant (RLQ)
left lower quadrant (LLQ)
nine regions delineated by four planes
the centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
located superior to the umbilical region (epi = upon, above; gastri = belly)
hypogastric (pubic) region
located inferior to the umbilical region (hypo = below)
right and left iliac, or inguinal regions
located lateral to the hypogastric region (iliac = superior part of the hip bone)
right and left lumbar regions
lie lateral to the umbilical region (lumbus = lion)
right and left hypchondriac regions
lie lateral to the epigastric region and deep to the ribs (chondra = cartilage)
oral and digestive cavities
The oral cavity, commonly called the mouth, contains the teeth and tongue. This cavity is part of and continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs, which opens to the body exterior at the anus.
Located within and posterior to the nose
Part of and continuous with the cavity of the digestive organs, which opens to the body exterior at the anus
orbits in the skull house the eyes and present them in an anterior position
middle body cavities
in the skull lie just medial to the eardrums
These cavities contain tiny bone that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears.
They are enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround freely movable joints of the body (such as the elbow and knee joints)
Like the serous membranes, cavities secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction as the bones move across one another.
Anterior view of the nine regions showing superficial organs
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