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417 terms

AP IV English Combined Vocabulary List

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oikos
the household; implying an estate, like a manor with family and servants, all centering on and dependent upon a marriage
polis
the ordered, consciously constructed city where the aim is to establish justice
physis
nature, the flow of things, the rhythm of being
nomos
law, custom, convention; the custom of the community; man-made ordinances, but based on divine order, including unwritten laws
cosmos
the order of the universe, a world
hybris
overweening pride and insolence; wanton violence; in tragedy, the human attempt to
hubris
bypass mortal limits and to be a god
nemesis
just indignation; retribution; a supernatural force that tracks down those who have committed an offense
ate
ruin, blind folly; infatuation; a curse passed down in a family line
eros
the motivating desire (love) that flows through all things, binding them together; in humans it can be a source of madness
themis
the ancient right order of things, justice as a tradition: the earth, the "mothers"
dike
justice that is arrived at by thought and reflection; the right order of Zeus; and incarnation of justice
moira
fate - that which fallas to the lot of anyone; one's portion; a due and regular share
tyche
chance, fortune, luck; irrational contingency; that which "happens"
sophrosyne
the ideal of the classical Greeks: balance, harmony, beauty, wholeness, purity
megalopsychos
the great-souled man of whom Aristotle writes; the ideal tragic hero
kairos
the right time for action; critical moment; due season; the moment of divine inspiration
chronos
time as the unfolding of all things; the successive movement of events; the beholder, conserver, and revealer of human actions
telos
the end, purpose, and final ordering of an action
praxis
action in the sense of doing
poiesis
action in the sense of making
theoria
action in the sense of contemplating
pathos
the state of being acted upon; passion, suffering
mimesis
imitation, in the sense of making a representation, an image, or a model
catharsis
the purging and illuminating that tragedy effects through pity and fear
hamartia
the "tragic flaw"; missing the mark; a blindness
peripeteia
reversal of the situation; peripety; a turnabout
anagnoris
the revelation, enlightenment, which occurs in the course of a tragedy
mythos
plot
ethos
character
aristeia
display of superior prowess and skill
peitho
persuasion; charming speech
tetralogy
a group of four dramas, three tragedies and one satyr play
satyr
one of a class of woodland deities, attendant on Bacchus, represented as part human, part horse
miasma
a dangerous, foreboding, or deathlike influence or atmosphere
aggregation
a group or mass of distinct or varied things, persons, etc.
chthonic
of or pertaining to the deities, spirits, and other beings dwelling under the earth
adroitly
cleverly skillful, resourceful, or ingenious
pianissimo
very softly
reticulation
arrangement resembling a net or network
patrimony
an estate inherited from one's father or ancestors
usurpation
wrongful or illegal encroachment, infringement, or seizure
catechism
an elementary book containing a summary of the principles of religion, esp. as maintained by a
matricide
the act of killing one's mother
theodicy
a vindication of the divine attributes, particularly holiness and justice, in establishing or allowing
armada
any fleet of warships
citadel
a fortress that commands a city and is used in the control of the inhabitants and in defense during
bridle
anything that restrains or curbs
saffron
yellow-orange
libation
an intoxicating beverage when drunk in ceremonial or celebrative situations
bastion
anything seen as preserving or protecting some quality, condition
yoke
an emblem or symbol of subjection, servitude, slavery, etc.
rapine
the violent seizure and carrying off of another's property; plunder
unction
an excessive, affected, sometimes cloying earnestness or fervor in manner
tribunal
court of justice
acropolis
a raised area holding a building or cluster of buildings
adjutant
staff officer who assists the commanding officer
allay
to put (fear, doubt, suspicion, anger, etc.) to rest; calm; quiet
acanthus
a plant having spiny or toothed leaves and showy, white or purplish flowers
assiduous
constant; unremittin
astern
in a position behind a specified vessel or aircraft
augury
an omen, token, or indication
bilge
rounded area that forms the transition between the bottom and the side on the exterior of a hull
buffett
to force one's way by a fight, struggle
bullock
a young bull
castigate
to criticize or reprimand severely
clamber
climb with effort or difficulty
compunction
contrition; remorse
cozen
to cheat, deceive, or trick
cuirass
defensive armor for torso, a breastplate and backplate
din
a loud, confused noise
eddying
moving or whirling
feign
put on an appearance of
festal
pertaining to or befitting a feast, festival, holiday, or gala occasion
filial
of, pertaining to, or befitting a son or daughter
flank
the side of an animal or a person between the ribs and hip
flay
to whip or lash
flotilla
a group of small naval vessels
gale
a very strong wind
harpy
a ravenous, filthy monster having a woman's head and a bird's body
hawser
a heavy rope for mooring or towing
hinterland
the remote or less developed parts of a country; back country
hummock
a knoll or hillock
ilex
a holly
immedicable
incurable
implacable
not to be appeased, mollified, or pacified
incendiary
tending to arouse strife, sedition; inflammatory
inviolable
incapable of being violated; incorruptible
marjoram
any of several aromatic herbs belonging to the genus Origanum, of the mint family
mollify
to mitigate or reduce; soften
nymph
a beautiful or graceful young woman
palter
to bargain with; haggle
pinion
to disable (someone) in such a manner; shackle
placate
to appease or pacify
prodigious
extraordinary in size, amount, extent, degree, force
propitious
presenting favorable conditions; favorable
quail
to lose heart or courage in difficulty or danger; shrink with fear
rabble
a disorderly crowd; mob
resplendent
shining brilliantly; gleaming; splendid
rondure
a circle or sphere
scabrous
indecent or scandalous
skein
anything wound in or resembling a coil
spelt
a wheat
staunch
firm or steadfast in principle, adherence, loyalty
trident
the three-pronged spear forming a characteristic attribute of the sea godPoseidon, or Neptune
abridge
to shorten or diminish
abrogate
to abolish
afoot
developing or in the process of happening
anomaly
irregularity; straying from the norm
antiquated
obsolete; out of fashion; no longer usable
baseness
the quality of lacking higher values
bestial
brutal without reason; having the attributes of a savage
bourgeois
pertaining to the middle class
brazen
shameless; insolent; disrespectful
carnal
marked by sexuality that is often frank and unrelieved by higher emotions
chary
careful; cautious
chide
to voice disapproval; to scold
circumscribed
restricted or limited
clemency
leniency
cognate
related
communal
pertaining to a group or community
compliance
a yielding; acquiescence
confound
to cause one to become confused
conjecture
guesswork;an inference or conclusion drawn or deduced by surmise or
consonance
agreement or harmony
convocation
an assembly where there is a coming together
cursory
superficial
desultory
disconnected; rambling
dexterous
skillful and active with the hands; manually adroit and skillful
discord
a lack of agreement; strife; tension
edifying
spiritually or morally instructing and improving
ensconce
to place securely; to conceal
entreaty
a plea; an earnest request
equivocal
ambiguous, usually intended to deceive
extant
still in existence
factitious
artificial
felicitous
happy or delightful
felling
cutting down or knocking down a tree; killing
forbearance
patience, lenience
forestalled
prevented or delayed beforehand
fret
to worry or be annoyed
galling
very irritating
germane
important to the issue at hand; pertaining to
gilded
covered with gold or having a golden color; having a background of wealth
grate
to cause irritation
gratis
free
gravity
seriousness; importance
heed
to give attention
hie
to go quickly; to hasten
homage
a reverential regard; respect shown by external action
impalpable
vague; not easily understood
importunity
an insistent and pressing demand
incorporeal
having no material or tangible form
ingenuity
cleverness; inventiveness; resourcefulness
inter
to deposit a dead body into a grave
invidious
causing ill will; offensive
jaded
weary from overuse; surfeited
malinger
to feign sickness
martial
of, related to, or suggesting of war
maudlin
tearfully sentimental
meretricious
showily attractive; tawdry
misanthrope
hater of mankind
mote
a very small particle; a speck
mutinous
rebellious; unruly
neophyte
beginner; convert
oblivion
a state of being forgotten
obsequious
overly attentive; servile
obstinate
unyielding regardless of reason or logic
obstreperous
noisy; boisterous
opulence
wealth
ostentatious
showy; pretentious
ostracize
to banish
palpable
tangible; perceptible; easily noticeable
paradoxical
something that appears false or contradictory but is actually correct
parch
to become dry from heat; to shrivel from heat
pedant
one who possesses mere book learning
peevish
fretful; obstinate
perdition
utter damnation; ruin
peremptory
dictatorial; unconditional
perfunctory
mechanical; indifferent
pernicious
very destructive or harmful; deadly
peruse
to read or examine
pithy
concise and meaningful
plausible
seemingly acceptable, believable, or possible
ponderous
very heavy; unwieldy from weight
potent
powerful; having a strong effect
prate
to talk idly and foolishly at a great length
precursor
something that comes before; a forerunner
profane
showing contempt towards sacred things
promontory
land or rock projecting into a body of water
quaint
unusual in character or experience
qualm
misgiving
ratify
to give formal approval
relish
to take great pleasure and delight in
remuneration
compensation
requite
to make repayment or to return
retrograde
reverting to an earlier or inferior condition
rhapsodize
to express in an overly enthusiastic manner
rouse
to awaken; to become active
sanctify
to set apart for sacred use; to make holy; to purify
scant
barely sufficient
scintillate
sparkle
sedulous
industrious
sovereign
possessed of controlling power
spurn
to reject or to refuse with hostility
suspire
to breath; to sigh
tantamount
equivalent
tempestuous
turbulent; stormy
tenable
capable of being maintained in argument; rationally defensible
tryst
a meeting, usually secret in nature
volition
act of determination
wanton
immoral; lewd
zealot
fanatic
ameliorate
to make better
ardent
intense; passionate
benignity
favorability; goodness
capitulate
surrender
chimera
a monster with a lion's head; illusion; fabrication
chimerical
given to fantastic schemes
conciliating
calming; satisfying
consecrate
declare sacred
cull
pick out; select
dogmatism
arrogant, stubborn assertion of opinion or belief
dross
unwanted part
emaciated
extremely thin
endue
provide with a quality of power
evince
determine clearly
fastidious
particular; oversensitive
fervent
showing deep feeling
filial
related to a child
imbibe
drink in
immutable
unchangeable
incipient
beginning to exist or appear
inclemency
quality of having a temper or lacking mildness
inexorable
relentless
infidel
one who has no morals or religious beliefs
injunction
authoritative order
insensible
imperceptible; unconscious; unsusceptible
inuring
becoming accustomed to
lineament
line or feature of the face
minutiae
trifling matters
multifarious
occurring in great variety
panegyric
a speech or essay about a dead person
paroxysm
a fit, attack, or sudden increase of symptoms
pedantry
act of paying too much attention to book learning
penury
extreme poverty
physiognomy
outward appearance or the inner character shown by it
preceptor
principal of a school
precepts
rules to guide one's conduct
predilection
preference
procure
to obtain
progeny
offspring
prognosticate
predict
rankling
thing that causes irritation or anger
recapitulation
summary
recompense
repayment
repine
complain
requisite
required for a purpose
respite
a rest or break
suppliant
one who is humbly begging
tyros
beginners; novices
abyss
an immeasurable profound depth or void
adamantine
unyielding; inflexible
amerced
punished by an arbitrary penalty
ammiral
an obsolete form of admiral
apostate
one who forsakes his principles or beliefs
arrogate
to take or claim without right
asperse
to charge falsely or with malicious intent
baleful
evil; dire
beatific
blissful; saintly
bituminous
relating to or containing coal
brooding
deeply or seriously thoughtful
capacious
spacious; roomy
carbuncle
painful infection of the skin
concupiscence
ardent; usually sensuous; longing
deluge
overrun with water
dubious
of uncertain outcome
elocution
the art of speaking clearly and effectively
empyreal
celestial
ensign
a sign, token, or emblem
ethereal
heavenly exquisite
execrable
utterly detestable; abominable; abhorrent
fealty
the loyalty that citizens owe to their country
gloze
to explain away; extenuate; gloss over
ignominy
dishonor; infamy
impetuous
impulsive
impious
lacking respect
incumbent
the holder of an office
indignation
anger aroused by something unjust
infernal
of or relating to Hell
invoke
to call upon for assistance
jaunting
making a short excursion
jocund
cheerful disposition
kine
plural form of cow
lascivious
inclined to lustfulness; wanton; lewd
marle
thin cloth used to cover wounds
maugre
notwithstanding; in spite of
nocent
harmful; injurious
obdurate
hardened against good morals
opprobrious
outrageously disgraceful or shameful
oracle
source of wise counsel or prophetic opinions
penal
subject to or incurring punishment
perfidious
deliberately faithless; treacherous; deceitful
pernicious
insidiously harmful or ruinous
phalanx
any closely ranked crowd of people
pilaster
a rectangular column
pregnant
teeming or fertile; rich
proem
a short introduction; preface
profluent
flowing smoothly or abundantly forth
progeny
a descendant or offspring
propitious
presenting favorable conditions
puissant
powerful; mighty; potent
rancor
bitter, rankling resentment or ill will
rapine
forcible seizure of another's property
rivulet
small brook or stream
rood
a cross as used in crucifixion
sapient
wise; discerning
satiate
to satisfy to the full
sedulous
marked by care and persistent effort
sottish
given to excessive drinking
suppliant
asking humbly and earnestly
tempestuous
tumultuous; stormy
thrall
one under the control of another person
transgress
to go beyond
umbrage
offense; annoyance; displeasure
unctuous
excessively smooth, suave, or smug; oily
usurper
one who wrongfully or illegally seizes and holds the place of another
uxorious
excessively submissive or devoted to one's wife
venial
easily excused or forgiven
verdant
green with vegetation
voluble
fluent, talkative
vouchsafe
to allow or permit, as by favor
welter
confusion; turmoil
abject
wretched, without resources
alacrity
prompt and eager readiness
alpaca
a kind of llama or fabric made from this hair
arid
dry, parched or dull, uninteresting
ascetic
exceedingly strict or severe in religious exercises
assegais
a southern African tree having wood used for making spears or lances
august
majestic; imposing
brusque
short and abrupt
cipher
a secret method of writing
circuitous
roundabout, indirect
clamber
to climb with some difficulty
concertina
a portable musical instrument w/hexagonal ends
confab
an impromptu or informal conference
conflagration
a great and destructive fire
cravat
necktie
declivity
downward inclination
diaphanous
(of fabric) light, delicate, & almost transparent
disinterred
unearthed; having dug up something buried
drollery
something that has a humorous, whimsical, or odd quality
drubbing
a severe defeat; a beating
emissary
the agent of another
epoch
a particular period of history
estuary
the mouth of a large river where its flow is affected by ebb & flow of tides
factitious
artificial; contrived
farcical
broadly or extravagantly humorous
fecund
fruitful in offspring or vegetation; prolific
hankering
strong persistent desire
harlequin
a clown; a buffoon
hovel
any dirty, disorganized dwelling
imbecile
a person of mentally deficient intelligence; the term belongs to a classification system no longer in use and is now considered offensive.
inextricable
incapable of being disentangled
inscrutable
not easily understood; mysterious
insipid
lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate, or challenge
insidious
awaiting a chance to entrap
insolence
the trait of being rude or impertinent
interloper
to thrust oneself into the affairs of others
interminable
incapable of being terminated; unending
intrepidity
resolutely fearless; dauntless
jocose
characterized by joking; jesting; humorous
languor
lack of energy or vitality
legionnaire
a member of any legion; legionary
litany
prayer consisting of a series of invocations and supplications by the leader with alternative responses by the congregation
lugubrious
exaggeratedly of affectedly mournful
lurid
gruesome; horrible; revolting
mica
any of various minerals
mizzenmast
the after and shorter mast of a yawl, ketch, or dandy; jiggermast
modulated
adjusted or kept in proper measure or proportion
moribund
being in the state of dying; approaching death
obsequiously
marked by or exhibiting a fawning attentiveness
obtrude
to thrust (something) forward or upon a person
pestiferous
bringing or bearing disease
placidity
pleasantly calm or peaceful
portico
porch or walkway with a roof supported by columns
prevaricator
liar; one who deviates from truth
propitiatory
intended to reconcile or appease
rapacity
giving to seizing for plunder or the satisfaction of greed
recondite
beyond ordinary knowledge or understanding
recrudescence
new outbreak after a period of inactivity
rent
to tear apart, split, or divide
sagacious
showing acute mental discernment
sarcophagus
a stone coffin, esp. one bearing sculpture, inscriptions
sententiously
given to excessive moralizing; self-righteous
sepulcher
a tomb, grave, or burial place
serried
crowded or pressed together; compacted
servile
slavishly submissive
shoal
sandbank which makes the water shallow
skulking
moving about stealthily
somnambulist
sleep walker
spectral
characteristic of a phantom
stanchion
an upright bar, beam, post
tenebrous
dark; gloomy; obscure
trireme
an ancient Greek or Roman galley or warship
venerable
commanding respect because of great age or noble character
vermouth
an aromatized white wine
wantonly
done maliciously or unjustifiably
worsted
compact yarn from long wool fibers
wraith
a visible spirit
yarn
a tale, esp. a long story of adventure
yawl
a two-masted, fore-and-aft-rigged sailing vessel
insatiate
impossible to satisfy
myrrh
small spiny tree: used for incense, perfume, etc.
Navelstone
centermost and holiest object at oracle centers bordering the Mediterranean Sea
Furies
minor female divinities who punished crimes at the instigation of the victims
partisan
a fervent, sometimes militant supporter or proponent