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Arts and Humanities
Phil Test #1
Terms in this set (31)
Asserts that something is the case, or that something is not.
Series of propositions, where one or more, called premises are intended to establish the truth of another, called the conclusion.
Try to show that the conclusion must be true.
If the conclusion follows from the premises.
It is valid
All premises are true.
Try to show that the conclusion is probable
Appeal to the Populace (or, the Appeal to the Majority)
When the support given for some conclusion is an appeal to popular belief.
Appeal to Emotion
When an argument depends on evoking an emotional response, rather than on reason.
When attention is deliberately deflected away from the issue under discussion.
When an opponent's position is depicted as being more extreme or unreasonable than what was actually asserted
Ad Hominem (Argument Against the Person)
When an argument relies on an attack against the person taking a position (rather than going against the position itself
An ad hominem attack that denigrates the target's character
An ad hominem attack that focuses on the circumstances of the target
An ad hominem attack that tries to deflect a criticism by pointing out that the one making it is similarly guilty
Poisoning the Well
An ad hominem attack about the good faith or honesty of one's opponent, such that anything they say (including to contradict this attack) is cast into doubt.
Appeal to Force
When an argument relies on a threat of force to encourage accepting its conclusion
Missing the Point (irrelevant conclusion)
When an argument is given toward a conclusion irrelevant to the discussion.
Argument from Ignorance
When a proposition is held to be true because it has not been proven false (or false because it has not been proven true).
Appeal to Inappropriate Authority
When someone's opinion is invoked as an authority on a topic outside their expertise
When something is treated as a cause of something else, when it is not.
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc (After this, therefore because of this)
When an event is treated as being caused by something, merely because it occurred afterward.
When a particular change is asserted to lead inevitably to further changes in the same direction.
When one moves from a single case, or very few cases, to a large-scale generalization about all or most cases.
When a generalization is mistakenly applied to a case where it does not apply.
When a question is asked in such a way as to presuppose the truth of some claim buried in the question.
Begging the question (Circular Argument)
When the conclusion of an argument is stated or assumed in one of its premises.
When a word or phrase is used in different parts of an argument, but actually means different things in those places.
When the grammatical construction of a premise makes it ambiguous between two meanings (with one meaning needed to make the premise true, and the other needed to make the argument work)
When the meaning of a premise varies depending on the placement of emphasis, (with one emphasis needed to make the premise true, and the other emphasis needed to make the argument work.)
When one incorrectly infers that, because something is true of all of something's parts, it must also be true of the whole.
When one incorrectly infers that, because something is true of a whole, it must also be true of one of its parts.
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