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351 terms

Final Review

STUDY
PLAY
acute
sudden, sharp, severe
biopsy
surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination
chronic
opposite of acute
pertaining to time
long term
slow progression
diagnosis
determination of the cause and nature of the disease
disease
lack of ease
pathological condition of the body that presents with a series of symptoms, signs and laboratory findings
excision
process of cutting out
surgical removal
incision
process of cutting into
malignant
formation of a bad kind
growing worse, harmful, cancerous
necrosis
abnormal condition of death tissue
paracentesis
surgical puncture of a body cavity for fluid removal
prognosis
a state of forknowledge
prediciton of a disease and recovery rate
prophylactic
preventing or protecting against disease or pregnancy
geriatrics
study of aspects of aging
pediatrics
pertaining to the treatment of children
Bx
biopsy
Dx
diagnosis
Hx
history
inflammation
bodys defense against injury, infection, or allegery
4 signs: swelling, redness, pain, heat
internal medicine
medical specialty concerned with the overall health and well being of adults
-aglesia
condition of pain
-cyte
cell
-genesis
formation / produce
-logy
study of
-therapy
treatment
-ia
condition of
-osis
abnormal condiiton
-edema
swelling
-itis
inflammation
-oma
tumor
-pathy
disease
-rrhage
bursting forth
-rrhea
flow discharge
-trophy
nourishment
development
-centesis
surgical puncture
-ectomy
surgical excision
surgical removal
resection
-gram
weight
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
recording
-meter
instrument to measure
-metry
measurement
-scope
instrument for examining
-scopy
visual examination
to view
examine
epithelium
structure that covers the internal and external organs of the body and the lining of vessels, body, cavities, glands, and organs
hypertrophy
excessive nourishment
infection
process whereby a pathogenic microorganism invades the body, reproduces, multiplies and causes disease
trauma
physical injury or wound caused by external force, violence or a toxic substance
history
a record of past events as they relate to person and his or her medical background
-iasis
abnormal condiiton
-ist
refers to someone who specializes
lesion
injury or wound
a-,an-
no
witout
lack of
apart
anti-
agianst
mal
bad
dys
bad
difficult
painful
abnormal
eu-
good.normal
hetero-
different
micro-
small
psuedo-
false
peri-
around
endo-
within, inner
epi-
upon
above
over
hyper-
above
beyond
excessive
hypo-
below
under
deficient
inter-
between
intra-
within, into
sub-
below
under
beneath
bi-
two
double
milli-
one thousandth
mono-
one
multi-
many
much
hemi-
half
tri-
three
uni-
one
hypoplasia
underdevelopment of tissue, organ, or body
sign
any objective clinical evidence of an illness or disordered function of the body
can be seen, heard, measured or felt by the examiner
symptom
any perceptible change in the function of the body that indicates disease
neo-
new
Sx
symptoms
syndrome
group of signs, symptoms, laboratory findings, and psychological disturbances that are linked by a common history
trans-
across
over
beyond
cyt/o
cell
hist/o
tissue
path/o
disease
somat/o
body
viscer/o
body organs
homeostasis
state of equilibrium that is maintained within the bodys internal environment
mitochondria
involved in cellular metabolism and respiration
provides the principle source of cellular energy and is the place where complex, energy releasing chemical reactions occur continuously
aka power plants
tissue
a grouping of similar cells that together perform specialized functions
epithelial tissue
sheetlike arrangement of cells, sometimes several layers thick, that form the outer surfaces of the body and line the body cavities and the principle tubes and passageways leading to the exterior
connective tissue
most widespread and abundant of the body tissues
forms the supporting network for the organs of the body, sheaths the muscles, and connects muscles to bones and bones to joints
muscles tissue
3 types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac
nerve tissue
nerve cells and supporting cells called neuroglia.
has the properties of exitability and condunctively and functions to control and coordinate the activities of the body
organ
multiple different tissues serving a common purpose or function make up structures
superior
above
in an upward direction
toward the head
inferior
below
downward direction
more toward the feet or tail
anterior aka ventral
in front of
before
front side of the body
posterior aka dorsal
toward the back
back side of the body
medial
nearest the midline
middle
lateral
to the side
away from the middle
proximal
nearest the point of attachment
near the beginning of a structure
distal
away from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure
thoracic cavity
area of the chest containing the heart and the lungs
abdominopelvic cavity
the combination of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
9 region of abdominopelvic cavity
right hypochondriac
left hypochondriac
epigastric
right lumbar
left lumbar
umbilical
right iliac
left iliac
hypogastric
tars/o
ankle
brach/i
arm
thorac/o
chest
cephal/o
head
cervic/o
neck
anatomy
to cut up/ cut apart
study of the structure of an organism such as humans
cranial
pertaining to the cranium
cytology
study of cells
histology
study of tissue
internal
within or inside
pathology
study of disease
physiology
study of the function of living organisms anatomy and physiology is the combination of the study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body
systemic
pertaining to the body as a whole
visceral
body organs enclosed within a cavity, especially abdominal organs
therapeutic
used in treatment of a disease or condition such as an allergy
to relieve the symptoms or sustain the patient until other measures are instituted
prophylactic
certain drugs such as immunizing agents are used to ward off or lessen the severity of a disease
peripheral
located further from the center
derm/o
skin
dermat/o
skin
erythr/o
red
kerat/o
horn
melan/o
black
myc/o
fungus
epidermis
outer protective covering of the body that can be divided into five strata
dermis
nourishes the epidermis
provides strength
supports blood vessels
subcutaneous tissue
supports, nourishes, insulates, and cushions the skin
sebaceous gland
lubricates the hair and skin
sudoriferous gland
secretes sweat or perspiration, helps cool the body by evaporation.
also rids the body of waste
basal cell carcinoma
epithelial malignant tumor of the skin that rarely metastasizes.
usually begins as a small, shiny papule and enlarges to form a whitish border
cicatrix
scar left after the healing of the wound
cyst
closed sac that contains fluid, semifluid or solid material
debridement
removal of foreign material or damaged or dead tissue especially in a wound. it is used to promote healing and prevent infection
erythema
redness of the skin
may be caused by capillary congestion, inflammation, heat, sunlight, or cold temperature
exudate
production of pus or serum
gangrene
an eating sore
it is a necrosis or death of tissue or bone that usually results from a deficient or absent blood supply to the area
pruritus
severe itching
rosacea
chronic disease of the skin of the face marked by varying degrees of papules, pustules, erythema, telangectasia, and hyperplasia of the soft tissues of the nose
usually occurs in middle aged and older ppl
seborrhea
excessive flow of oil from the sebaceous glands
sebum
fatty/oily secretion produced by the sebaceous glands
squamos cell carcinoma
malignant tumor of squamos epithelial tissue
ulcer
open lesion or sore of the epidermis or mucous membrane
varicella
contagious viral disease characterized by fever, headache, and a crop of red spots that become macules, papules, vesicles, and crusts
aka chicken pox
xeroderma
dry skin
antibiotic agents
agents that destroy or stop growth of microorganisms
prevents infection associated with minor skin abrasions and to treat superficial skin infections and acne
BCC
basal cell carcinoma
SCC
squamos cell carcinoma
abrasion
scraping away of skin or mucous membrane as a result of injury or for therapeutic purposes
acne vulgaris
teenage form of acne
antibiotic resistance
ability of some microorganisms to block the action of an antibiotic drug because of mutation and evolution
bacteria
one celled organism with no nuclei, some of which are pathogenic
cauterization
destruction of tissue using a chemical, freezing, heat or electricity
collagen
strong, fibrous flexible protein found in connective tissue
fungus
single cell that has a nucleus
fungi are parasitic or live off dead organic matter
keratin
tough fibrous protein found in epithelial cells
provides strength to skin hair and nails
laceration
wound or irregular tear of the flesh
melanin
pigment that gives color to hair skin and eyes
melanoma
often called malignant melanoma
most dangerous type of cancer
MM
malignant melanoma
nevus
mole
parasite
an organism that lives within, upon or at the expense of another organism and causes harm
purulent
forming or containing pus
verruca
wart
virulent
infectious
able to overcome a hosts organism defense
virus
non living pathogen composed of proteins and nucleic acid which can reproduce only after infecting a host organism
arthr/o
joint
chondr/o
cartilage
cost/o
rib
myel/o
bone marrow
oste/o
bone
cartilage
type of connective tissue
forms the major portion of the embryonic skeleton and part of the skeleton in adults
tendon
attach muscles to bones
consist of connective tissue
ligaments
bands of fibrous tissue that connects bones, cartilages and other structures
also serve as a place for the attachment of fascia
condyle
rounded projection that enters into the formation of a joint, articulation
fissure
slitlike opening between two bones
foramen
opening in the bone for blood vessels, ligaments, and nerves
fossa
shallow depression in or on a bone
meatus
tubelike passage or canal
sinus
air cavity within certain bones
fracture
crack or break in the bone
closed simple fracture
completely internal break that does not involve a break in the skin
open compound fracture
fracture projects through skin and is a possiblity of infection or hemorrhage
more dangerous than a closed fracture
comminuted fracture
shatters the affected part into a multitude of bony fragments
arthralgia
joint pain
arthritis
inflammation of a joint
arthroplasty
surgical procedure used to repair a joint
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
carpal tunnel syndrome
abnormal condition caused by compression of the median nerve by the carpal ligament due to injury or trauma to the area
cartilage
specialized type of fibrous connective tissue found at the ends of bone
forms the major portions of the embryonic skeleton before birth
collagen
fibrous, insoluble protein found in the connective tissue, skin, ligaments, and cartilage
craniectomy
surgical excision of a portion of the skull
craniotomy
surgical incision made into the skull
gout
hereditary metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis, which is marked by joint inflammatiion
osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone marrow
osteoporosis
abnormal condition characterized by a decrease in the density of bones, decreasing their strength and causing fragile bones which can result in fractures
rheumatoid arthritis
chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the joints, stiffness, pain and swelling which results in crippling deformities
rickets
abnormal condition that can occur in children and is caused by a lack of vitamin d
sprain
traumatic injury to the tendons, muscles, or ligaments around a joint characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration
corticosteroid anti inflammatory agents
steroid substance with potent anti inflammatory effects
nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs
agents used in the treatment of arthritis and related disorders
analgesics
agents that relieve pain
arthroscopy
examining internal structure of a joint via an arthroscope
xray
examination of bones using an electromagnatic wave of high energy produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a target in a vacuum tube
Fx
fracture
NSAID
nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs
acetaminophen
drug with antipyretic and analgesic effects similar to those of aspirin but with limited anti inflammatory effects
used to treat mild moderate pain
arthroscopic surgery
surgical repair of a joint by using a lighted instrument and camera
bone marrow
soft tissue in the central cavity of the bones
yellow bone marrow stores fat
red bone marrow produces blood cells
ibuprofen
an NSAID with antipyretic and analgesic properties used to treat chronic arthritis dysmenorrhea , athletic injuries and many other conditions
joint
fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial, (anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if the articulation allows motion)
osteopathy
therapy based on the assumption that restoring health is best accomplished by manipulating the skeleton and muscles
"based upon a theory"
suture
line of union in a fibrous joint
synovial fluid
lubricating fluid in a joint
my/o
muscle
skeletal muscle
produces various types of body movement through contractility, extensibility, and elasticity
smooth muscle
produces relatively slow contraction with greater degree of extensibilty in the internal organs, especially organs of the digestive, respiratory, and urinary tract plus certain muscles of the ey and skin and walls of blood vessels
cardiac muscle
contraction of the myocardium which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system specialized neuromuscular tissue located within the right atrium
atrophy
lack of nourishment
wasting of muscular tissue that may be caused by lack of use or lack of nerve stimulation of the muscle
diaphragm
partition of muscles and membranes hat seperates the chest cavity and the abdominal cavity
major muscle of breathing
dystrophy
any condition of abnormal development caused by defective nourishment, often noted by the degeneration of muscles
fascia
thin layer of connective tissue covering, supporting, or connecting the muscles or inner organs of the body
muscular dystrophy
refers to a group of genetic disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles that control movement
myasthenia gravis
chronic atutoimmune neuromuscular disease characterizeed by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal muscles of the body
prone position
lying face downward
used in examination of the back, injections, and massage
supine position
lying flat on back with face upward and arms at the sides
used in examining the head, neck, chest, abdomen, and extremeties and in assessing vital signs
strain
excessive forcible stretching of a muscle or the musculotendinous unit
tendon
band of fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones
cramp
painful involuntary skeletal muscle contaction
dyskinesia
difficult or painful movement
kinesi/o
movement
paralysis
loss of purposeful movement usually as a result of neurological disease, drugs, or toxins
rehabilitation
process of treatment and education that helps disabled individuals to attain maximum function, sense of well being, and independence
spasm
involuntary sudden movement or muscle contraction
chol/e
gall, bile
dent/o
tooth
enter/o
intestine
gastr/o
stomach
hepat/o
liver
lapar/o
abdomen
pharynx
common passageway for both respiration and digestion
muscular constrictions move the swallowed bolus into the esophagus
larynx
voice box
epiglottis
flap of tissue blocks the opening of the larynx
esophagus
muscular tube about 10 inches long that leads from the pharynx to the stomach
peristalsis
food is carried along the esophagus by a series of wavelike muscular contractions
small intestine
21 ft long, 1 in diameter
extends from pyloric sphincter at the base of the stomach to the entrance of the large intestine
duodenum
first 12 in. just beyond the stomach
jejunum
next 8 ft or so
ileum
remaining 12 ft of the tube
large intestine
5 ft long 2 1/2 in diameter
extends from the ileocecal valve at the small intestine to the anus
cecum
pouchlike structure forming the beginning of the large intestine
liver
largest glandular organ in the body
weighs about 3 1/2 lbs and is located in the upper right part of the abdomen
bile
digestive juice important in fat emulsification
gallbladder
membranous sac attached to the liver in which excess bile is stored and concentrated
pancreas
large, elongated gland situated behind the stomach and secreting pancreatic juice into the small intestine
cholecystectomy
surgical excision of the gallbladder
cirrhosis
chronic degenerative liver disease characterized by changes in the lobes
colonoscopy
visual examination of the colon via a colonscope
colostomy
creation of a new opening into the colon
constipation
difficult defecation
infrequent passage of unduly hard and dry feces
diarrhea
frequent passage of unformed watery stools
diverticulitis
inflammation of the diverticula
dyspepsia
indigestion
difficulty in digestion
emesis
vomiting
gastroesophageal reflux disease
condition that ocurrs when the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach is weak or relaxes inapropiately allowing the stomachs contents to back up into he esophagus
hemorrhoid
mass of dilated tortuous veins in the anorectum
can be internal or external
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
hernia
abnormal protrusion of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the body cavity that normally contains it
laxative
substance that acts to loosen the bowels
nausea
uncomfortable feeling of the inclination to vomit
peristalsis
wavelike contraction that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body especially the alimentary canal
ulcer
open lesion or sore of the epidermis or mucous membrane
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
botulism
paralytic and ocassionally fatal illness caused by exposure to a bacterial toxin usually from eating contaminated food
cholecyst/o
gallbladder
cholelithiasis
presence of gallstones
endoscopy
inspection of body organs or cavities using a lighted instrument with a camera on the end
enema
solution into the rectum and colon to stimulate bowel activity and cause emptying of the lower intestine in order to perform some procedure
gallstone
hardened deposits formed from calcium or cholesterol in the gallbladder or bile ducts
mucous membrane
moist tissue layer that lines the hollow organs and cavities that are open to the outside world
mucus
sticky fluid secreted by mucous membranes glands
parenteral
denoting any medication route other than through the digestive tract
mostly injected
peritoneum
serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and the organs within this cavity
pyloric sphincter
circular muscle around the opening between the end of the stomach and the duodenum
sigmoid colon
"s" shaped portion of the colon
between the descending colon and the rectum
sigmoidoscopy
lighted instrument with a camera used to examine only the sigmoid colon and rectum
suppository
semisolid substance carrying a drug that is introduced into the rectum, vagina, or urethra where it dissolves
angi/o
vessel
ather/o
fatty subsatnce
cardi/o
heart
hem/o
blood
phleb/o
vein
thromb/o
clot of blood
vascul/o
small vessel
atria
upper chambers
seprated by the interatrial septum
recive blood from various parts of the body
ventricle
lower chambers
seperated by the interventricular septum
pump blood to the body parts
tricuspid valve
guards the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle
bicuspid valve
left atrioventricular valve between the left atrium and ventricle
artery
branching system of vessels that tranport blood away from the heart to all body parts
vein
vessels that transport blood from peripheral tissues back to the heart
capillary
microscopic blood vessels with single celled walls that connect small arteries with small veins
systolic blood pressure
higher number
diastolic
lower number
aorta
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
aneurysm
abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel
angiogram
xray record of the size, shape, and locationof the heart and its blood vessels after the introduction of a radiopaque contrast medium
angioplasty
surgical repair of a blood vessel
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis
bulidup of fatty substances and hardening of the walls
auscultation
method of physical assessment using a stethoscope to listen to sounds within the chest, abdomen, and other parts of the body
bruit
noise, sound
cholesterol
normal soft waxy substance found among the lipids in the bloodstream and all body cells
embolism
pathological condition caused by obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign substance or blood clot
fibrillation
quivering contraction of individual muscle fibers
hyperlipidemia
abnormal high levels of lipids in the blood.
hypertension
high blood pressure
hypotension
low blood pressure
infarction
process of development of an infarct
death of tissue resulting from obstruction of blood flow
ischemia
lack of oxygen due to decreased blood supply to a part of the body caused by construction or obstruction of a blood vessel
low density lipoprotein
molecule that carries cholesterol throughout the circulatory system and tends to drop it off where it accumulates and causes plaque
bad
high density lipoprotein
drops off cholesterol in the liver to be recycled
good
myocardial infarction
heart attack
occlusion
blockage in a vessel, canal, or passage of the body
shock
life threatening condition where the body is not getting enough blood flow
sphygmomanometer
medical instrument used to measure the arterial blood pressure
stent
medical device made of expandable metal mesh that is placed at the site of a narrowing artery
stethoscope
medical instrument used to listen to the normal and pathological sounds of the heart, lungs, and other internal organs
tachycardia
rapid heartbeat that is over 100 beats per minute
thrombosis
blood clot within the vascular system
stationary
triglycerides
organic compund consisting of three molecules of fatty acids
antihyperlipidemic agents
used to lower abnormally high blood levels of fatty substances when other regimens fail
anticoagulants
prevent clots from forming
blood thinners
thrombolytic agents
dissolve an existing thrombus when administered soon after its occurence
angiography
xray recording of blood vessel
electrocardiography
medical procedure using sonographic sound to analyze the size, shape, and movement of strucutres inside the heart
lipid profile
series of blood tests including cholesterol, hdl, ldl, and triglycerides
`BP
blood pressure
EKG
electrocardiogram
HDL
high density lipoprotein
HTN
hypertension
LDL
low density lipoprotein
acetylsalicilic acid
standard anti clotting drug and is recommended for a wide range of cardiovascular diseases
coron/o
heart
hemangi/o
blood vessel
metabolic syndrome
presence of four interrelateed atherosclerotic risk factors
insulin resistance
hypertension
hyperlipidemia
obesity
patent
wide open
plaque
obstruction in the lining of an artery formed by the normal accumulation of the lipids and sometimes calcium
stenosis
constriction or narrowing of a passage