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Nervous system and brain
Terms in this set (38)
What are the two divisions of the nervous system?
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
what does the central nervous system include?
the brain and spinal cord
What does the peripheral nervous system include?
all structures outside of the brain and spinal cord
what are the two types of nervous tissue?
Neurons and Neuroglia
what does neurons do?
allow communication through transmission of nerve impulses
what are neuroglia?
supporting cells to neurons and protection cells
what is the structure of a neuron?
consists of a soma or cell body with all normal cells structures (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.), dendrites that receive incoming signal to neurons, and axons that transmit outgoing signals away from the neuron
what are the four major regions of the brain?
cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum
what are the four lobs the cerebrum is divided into?
frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe
where is the motor cortex and what is its function?
located in frontal lobe, controls voluntary movement in skeletal muscles
where is broca's area and what does it do?
broca's area is in the dominant hemisphere, it controls speech production and ability to make words
where is the prefrontal cortex and what is its function?
anterior part of the frontal lobe, allows you to interpret and analyze information
What is the function of the somatosensory cortex?
receives information from the body's sensory receptors in the skin
what is the function of the gustatory cortex?
associated with taste
what is the function of wernicke's area?
where you interpret language, without it you can't read or understand language
what is the olfactory cortex?
receives information from smell receptors in the superior nasal cavity
what is the auditory cortex?
what is the visual cortex?
where you detect light
what is the diencephalon?
structure of the brain involved with homeostasis. It includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
what is the function of the thalamus?
relay processing, it takes any information coming in and sends it to the correct place, deals with sensory input
what is the function of the hypothalamus?
controls large portions of the endocrine system, key regulator of ANS, serves as emotional regulator, and regulates hormone secrete
what does the epithalamus do?
plays a key role in sleep, secretes melatonin, which induces sleep and is regulated by light exposure
what is the function of olfactory bulb?
receives neural input about smells by cell in the nasal cavity, processes information about odors
what is the function of olfactory tracts?
tracts connect bulbs to cerebral hemispheres
what do the optic nerves do?
transfer visual information from the retina to the vision centers of the brain via electrical impulses
what does the optic chiasma do?
crucial to vision, the left and right optic nerves intersect the chiasm
what is the pituitary gland?
master gland, and secretes and regulates hormones
what does pons do?
means bridge, consists primarily of motor and sensory fiber tracts connecting the brain with lower CNS centers. plays a role in breathing, helps to determine if you are breathing fast enough or need to slow down
what is the medulla oblongata?
regulates most basic functions, regulates heart rate, control breathing, controls basic reflexes such as vomiting, hiccups, swallowing
what is the brain stem?
includes midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
what is the midbrain?
controls respiratory muscles, vocal cords, pharyngeal, oral and nasal passages
what is the function of the cerebellum?
coordinates motor commands and processes sensory information
what structures does the cerebellum include?
2 cerebellar hemispheres connected by a vermis, has gyri known as folia. deep fissures divide it into anterior and flocculongdular lobes, and white matter that branches is known as arbor vitae, and cerebellar peduncles connect cerebellum to the brain stem
what is the corpus callosum?
major commissure connecting cerebral hemispheres, integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive performances between cerebral cortex on one side of the brain to the same region on the other side
what lateral and fourth ventricles responsible for?
produce cerebral spinal fluid which helps to circulate nutrients and remove waste in the brain
what do arbor vitae do?
bring sensory and motor information to and from the cerebellum
what does ipsolateral mean?
same side, information travels to the side of spinal cord it enters and crosses to the opposite side of the body in the brain (all discriminative touch)
what does contralateral mean?
opposite side, information travels to the side of spinal cord it enter but crosses immediately upon entering the spinal cord (all pain/temp. pathways)
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