COUN 513 Final
Terms in this set (83)
What is work?
Something you put time and effort into
What do we get from work?
1) Gives a sense of identity
2) Economic benefits (money)
3) Fulfills psychological needs (something to do)
4) Social interaction
We want people to get as many ___ ___ as possible while at work.
belief in why you do things
What are the 5 work ethics in process in the U.S.
2) Worldly achievement (known for something)
4) Self-growth (personal meaning)
5) Worth ethic (good at what they do)
How do we find out a client's work ethic?
Ask them; talk about it
Where do people get their work ethic from? Is it likely to change?
Parents and others throughout life; no, not likely to change
What is the primary work ethic in the U.S.?
2nd work ethic in U.S.? 3rd?
Are people limited to one work ethic?
No, people put them together sometimes.
What influences a person's career?
Anything and everything going on in their lives at that particular time
What is the outcome of career counseling?
Job and life satisfaction
Is the client being honest about job satisfaction?
Client may come in with a career problem but after talking with them you realize it may actually be another issue (i.e. personal/home problems)
leftover after you cannot meet demands placed on you
What is important to remember about stress and coping?
Stress -> coping -> strain
Combo of the stress and how the person deals with it
Why is stress bad for the body?
Can damage the body if we are stressed all of the time; sympathetic nervous system continuously kicked in, not good all of the time
Can we control our stress?
Ask yourself if you can do something about it.
Yes? Then change it.
No? Don't worry about it
What can you do to help manage stress?
Relaxation techniques 3x a day
How many hours a day are wasted?
2 hours; many people are inefficient with time
What are some sources of career information?
Journal articles, onet, bls.gov, DOT, occupational outlook handbook, other people (network), go to professional organizations
Over the next 20 years, U.S. labor force expected to change and composition of workforce is going to change
Is education important to employers?
When does career development begin?
What is important to give to kids?
Accurate feedback; "You can do a lot of things. Let's see what your skills are and what you are good at." NOT "You can't do/be anything you want."
How do we promote career development if working at an elementary school?
-career days, explaining occupations while teaching, let kids know early on that school is beneficial later down the road
ASCA model in K-12?
2) Personal/social dev.
3) Career dev.
How do we promote career development if working at junior high/high school?
-Help them figure out who they are and their career maturity
-Sort of "acting as a parent"
-Program development (job shadowing)
What are some of the "other things" junior high/high school students are dealing with?
Social skills/making friends
Need for autonomy
According to Erikson, what is the primary crisis with junior high/high schoolers?
Identity vs. role confusion
4) Decision making skills
5) Career maturity*
What is important to remember when counseling junior high/high school students?
Help them deal with their personal stuff going on first, then talk about careers. Will not be able to make a good decision with their head full of other worries
Goals/outcomes of high school students
1) Not going to college? Make sure they have a marketable skill
2) Decision making skills
3) Learn connection between life roles and career
Developmental tasks college students are struggling with
-Breaking ties with parents
-Figuring out their major
-Helping them adjust being alone
According to Erikson, what is the primary crisis with college students?
Intimacy vs. isolation
Havinghurst's tasks needed when dealing with stress
1) Emotional independence
2) Preparing for marriage and family
4) Developing an ethical/moral system
Ginsburg's Model: Realistic Period for college years
1) Exploration: think about realistic career area
2) Crystallization: Making a definitive decision
3) Specification: Actually selecting a specific job
What additional stressors are college (or high school) females dealing with?
They need to think about balancing family and career if that is something they want
How do you help female client's set realistic goals?
Ask them how is it going to work and which is more important to them; i.e. want to be a doctor but also want 5 kids. very difficult
Advises for all areas; that is their specific job
Also, better method and saves money
Done by professors in your area of study
What happens in a good advising session?
1) Helping them understand life goals
2) Career goals
3) Looking at educational opportunities
4) Selecting a major, curriculum, classes
5) Schedule/life: putting them together
If working in university/college counseling center, what would you be doing?
1) "Standard" career counseling
2) Group therapy
3) Career workshop
4) Teach a class
If working in career resource/development center, what would you be doing?
-Only deals with career stuff
-Designed to help students get a job after college
-Prepare them to enter into field of work
-Help with resumes/CV's and interview tips
-Help with job applications
Having hurt's developmental stages/tasks for early adulthood
1) Selecting a partner
2) Learning to live with partner
3) Idea of starting a family
4) Rearing children
5) Managing a home
6) Getting started in your job/career
7) Taking on community responsibilities
8) Est. a social network
According to Erikson, what is the primary crisis with early adulthood?
Intimacy vs. isolation
Realistic period for early adulthood
1) Make sure people specify and pick a career field
2) Trial and stabilization: trying jobs to make sure they can actually do it, then stabilizing when they find the fit
Is it common or uncommon to have a shift in career?
Common; likely that you will end up starting all over again somewhere else
Stay at home mom
Working while being a homemaker
Basically they have 2 jobs
Work full-time, have a child and then become stay at home mom, then become conventional after a while
All over the place, no consistent pattern over time; they work for a couple of years, then stay at home, then go back, etc.
Start a career for a year or two and realize they chose the wrong career
-this takes them back to exploration and have to do it all over again
What is important to you
Okum's 9 ways to decipher if a person should stay in their job
1) Can you learn the job & how to do it efficiently?
2) Are you responsible for you own performance?
3) Can you accept being a subordinate?
4) Can you get along with others?
5) Basic job keeping skills (being on time)
6) Does the job offer a mentor?
7) Can you keep clear boundaries between work and personal life?
8) Do you get feedback?
9) Are you able to handle your feelings at your job?
Should you have all 9 aspects of Okum's theory?
There is no set rule that a person must have all 9. However, if you have 1-3, probably shouldn't keep it. 6? maybe so. depends on how the person feels about the job?
5 Developmental tasks we want to gain through work
1) More independent & less supervision
2) Develop high standards
4) Advancement: what's the next step
5) Developing a reputation in your field
Should companies provide career development services?
Yes, it saves money and keeps employees happy which in turn makes the more productive. Good for employee and employer
Things to keep in mind with career work within companies
1) Have to understand that people have enormous potential
2) Employee failure may be due to the company and not the employee
3) Work with employees in the company to increase productivity
4) Easier to generate the knowledge within than have to bring it in from the outside
5) Teach employees that feedback and open communication are vital
6) Can strengthen the image of the employer
Barriers/struggles within companies
1) Employees don't want to explore their careers
2) People are afraid to search/deal with emotion
3) Some people are not psychologically ready to deal with change; can be scary
McCoy: 3 overarching themes happening in middle adulthood
1) Catch 30: finishing off raising children
2) Mid-life crisis
In middle adulthood, what are they dealing with?
1) Finding yourself, personal meaning
2) Searching for values
3) Reassess our priorities
4) Reevaluate relationship
5) Reestablish/develop a social network again
Havinghurt's Model for middle adulthood
1) Adapting to a changing time perspective (life comes to an end)
2) Revisit career
3) Redefining family relationships
Why might middle adulthood bring changes to a person's career?
A person may be going through a mid-life crisis and want a change of careers or they get a new career because of technology changing
Things to help older adults with
1) Help them adjust to health problems
2) Help them deal with personal/social relationships
3) Accept changes in work capacity
4) Expanding their avocational interests (hobbies)
5) Learn how to finance retirement and hobbies
6) Deal with loss
7) Still understand how to solve problems
8) Managing stress
According to Erikson, what is the primary crisis with older adults?
Ego integrity vs. despair
What do we want from older adults?
To look back on their life and feel satisfied
Pulling away from work as an older adult
It is okay to not be interested in their work at this time, they are preparing to leave so it is good to start and disengage
Does a person have to retire once they reach "time" to?
No, remember to focus on their mentality rather than their actual age number.
Myth's about older workers
1) Slow and cannot meet job demands
2) Cannot meet physical demands
3) Not adaptable
4) Cost more because of insurance
Helping client's get ready for retirement
1) Reassess themselves; prepare for retirement with hobbies
2) Help them quit their job
3) Implement the life they have put together
4 Stages of retirement
1) Honeymoon stage: "Yay, no more work!"
2) Disenchantment stage: "This sucks"
3) Reorientation stage: This is how I want/need it to be or I will die
4) Stability stage
Can we help adults through the stages of retirement through counseling?
Yes, they might even be able to skip the disenchantment stage. Maybe they want to go to work (Walmart) or not; however, getting their needs met is our goal.
Providing services and counseling to older adults to teach them how to live a fulfilling and satisfying retirement life
-what they like/don't like
-help them deal with retirement issues
What types of retirement problems may clients face?
dealing with the fact they are no longer working, what to spend their time doing, fitting in an active lifestyle, finding a hobby and fitting it in with finances
What is something to look for in a person in any stage of their development?
what is unique about them
What is the ultimate career assessment going to have?
What is the best thing to assess someone for since assessment takes a lot of time?
-self-efficacy: they are likely to do something they are interested in
Self-directed search assessment (SDS)
self-administered, self-graded; tells them their Holland RIASEC code
Strong interest inventory
Donald Strong and Campbell; give Holland code, skills, and interests along with a personality assessment
Should you let your clients see the results the computer gives them?
No, not necessarily. They will not make wise decisions. You will need to assess it yourself and give them the information in a better way. This gives them more options and a better understanding.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
Personality inventory but also can be used for career
16 Personality Factors (16PF)
More about personality and less about interests; however, puts the 16 factors on the Holland scale
What assessment should you use if you want to assess personality and interests?
16PF; therefore, you do not have to do MBTI and Strong