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Terms in this set (56)

Most remarkable achievement by Shi Huangdi was the Great Wall. In the past, individual feudal states had built walls to defend their lands against raiders. Shi Huangdi ordered the walls to be joined. Many workers died by making the Great Wall. It snaked for thousands of miles across North China. Even though it did not keep invaders out of China, it demonstrated the emperors' ability to mobilize China's vast resources.
Han Dynasty economy (canal and roads, granaries, monopoly on iron and salt, sale of iron and salt gave government a source of income other than axes on peasants. Expansion(expanding a country's territory, by increasing the amount of land under Chinese rule. fought battles to expand China's borders and to drive nomadic people beyond Great Wall. China armies added outposts in surrounding countries. Soldiers, traders, and settlers slowly spread Chinese influence across these areas.)Silk Road. Scholar Officials. Civil Service System. Science and medicine. Technology an engineering. Expanding arts.
Wudi followed a policy of expansionism by increasing the amount of land under Chinese rule. He fought many battles to expand China's borders and to drive nomadic peoples beyond the Great Wall. Chinese armies added outposts in Manchuria, Korea, northern Vietnam, Tibet, and Central Asia. Soldiers, traders, and settlers slowly spread Chinese influence across these areas.
o Emperor Wudi strengthened government and economy of Han Dynasty. He had granaries set up across the empire so the government could buy grain when it was abundant and sell it at stable prices when it was scarce.
o Civil Service System Confucianism was the official belief system of state in Han Dynasty. A scholar-official was expected to match the Confucian ideal of a gentlemen. Han emperors adopted the idea that civil servants should win their positions by merit, rather than through family ties as had occurred in past. In the Han civil service system, a young man would tsart in a clerical job. Once he proved his abilities, he would move up in local government. If he continued to excel, he would eventually be recruited into the civil service and might be tested on his knowledge of government policy. Essential t his studies were the Five Classics, a collection of history, poems, and handbooks complied by Confucius and others that served as a guide to conduct for about 2,000 years. Later, in the 580s, the Sui dynasty set up a formal system of civil service exams, which were given at the local, provincial, and national levels. Any man could take the exams but only those who could afford years of study could hope to succeed. Women didn't take civil serive exam because of Confucian teachings about filal peity and superiority of men so women were excluded from government jobs. The civil service system remained in use until 1912.
At its head was the emperor, whose court was filled with aristocratic families. China's two main social classes were the gentry and the peasantry. The scholar-official class formed the top stratum of society. Most scholar-officials at court cam from the gentry, or wealthy landowning class. They alone could afford to spend years studying the Confucian classics in order to pass the grueling civl service exam. They supported Confucianism. Ideal Confucian official was a wise, virtuous scholar who knew how to ensure harmony in society.
Peasants work the land. Most Chinese were peasants who worked the land, living on what they produced. To add to their income, they sold baskets or other items. They lived in small, largely self-sufficient villages that managed their own affairs. Peasants relied on one another than the government. In China, even peasants could move up in society through education and government service. If a bright peasant boy received an education and passed the civil service examinations, both he and his family rose in status. Slaves don't have these opportunities.
Merchants have lowest status- Merchants acquired wealth. According to Confucian tradition, merchants had an even lower social status than peasants since their riches came from the labor of others. Still, Chinese trade flourished during Song times.
Status of Women- Women had higher status in Tang and early Song times than they did later. Women were called upon to run family affairs. Families valued boys more than girls. When a young woman married, she became a part of her husband's family. She could not keep her dowry, the payment that a women brings to a marriage, and could never remarry. Foot binding, tiny feet were a sumbol of nobility and beauty. Foot binding was extremely painful. Large feet means no husband. Peasants couldn't do this because they needed to work in the fields. Foot binding reinforced the Confucian tradition that women should remain inside the home.
nomadic people who grazed their horses and sheep on the steppes, or vast, treeless plains of central asia.
o Ghengis Khan "Universal Rulers" Genghis Khan united warring (fighting) Mongolian tribes who were fighting with other Mongolian tribes. Strict military discipline and demanded absolute loyalty. His mobile armies had some of the most skilled horsemen in the world. Fierceness. When they wanted to face China, they encountered the problem of attacking walled cities. Did not live to complete the conquest of China.
o Kublai Khan Genghis Khan's grandson, finally toppled that last Song emperor in 1279. He tried to prevent the Mongols from being absorbed into Chinese civilization. He said that only Mongols could serve in military and reserved top-government spots for Mongols. Still, he allowed Chinese officials to rule in the provinces. Made his dynasty Yuan dynasty. He welcomed many foreigners to his court.
o Pax Mongolica The sons and grandsons of Genghis Khan established peace and order within their domains. This period of order in Pax Mongolica which means Mongol Peace.
o Mongols in China (Yuan Dynasty) Genghis Khan's grandson, finally toppled that last Song emperor in 1279. He tried to prevent the Mongols from being absorbed into Chinese civilization. He said that only Mongols could serve in military and reserved top-government spots for Mongols. Still, he allowed Chinese officials to rule in the provinces. Made his dynasty Yuan dynasty. He welcomed many foreigners to his court.
o Marco Polo Marco Polo's journey lasted 24 years. From Venice. 17 when they left for Cathay. They visited Yarkand, Khotan, Cherchen, and Lop-Nor. It took 3.5 years to get to Shangtu. Marco Polo stayed at Khan's court for 17 years (he stayed in Kublai's service). Many people believed in Macro Polo's telling and went to the places he went. He told of the wealth and the splendor (magnificence) of China. He described the royal palace of Kublai Khan, and also described China's efficient royal mail systemHe crossed Persia and Central Asia to reach China. He told of the wealth, magnificence, royal palace, royal mail system of China. In 1298, Marco Polo was imprisoned during a war with city-state of Genoa. It was at this time that he dictated his tales to a fellow prisoner, and they were published as The Travels of Marco Polo. Polo's reports sparked European interest in the riches of Asia.
Zhu Yuanzhang, peasant leader, founded Ming dynasty, meaning brilliant. Restored the civil service system and Confucian learning again became the road to success.
o Primary goal of Ming emperors To reassert Chinese greatness after years of foreign rule.
o Zheng He Early Ming rulers proudly sent Chinese fleets into distant waters to show the glory of their government. Starting in 1405, Zheng He commanded the first of seven expeditions. He departed at the head of a fleet of 62 huge ships and over 2000 smaller ones, carrying a crew of about 28,000 sailors. The largest ships measured 400 feet long. The goal of each expedition was to promote trade and collect tribute from lesser powers across the western seas. Exotice animals, such as giraffes, were imported rom foreign lands as well. The voyages also showed local rulers the power and strength of the Chinese empire.
o Chinese economy under the Ming Economically, the Ming dynasty was immensely productive. The fertile, well-irrigated plain of eastern China supported a population of more than 100 million. Peasants produced huge rice crops. Bettwe methods of fertilizing helped to improve farming. Repaired the extensive canal system that linked various regions, made trade easier, and allowed cities to grow. Ming China also saw a revival of arts and literature. Ming artists developed their own systoles of landscape painting and created brilliant blue and white porcelain. Poetry and literature also was good.
o Later Ming policies toward exploration- After Zheng He dided, the Ming emperor suddenly banned the building of seagoing ships. Historians are not sure why China ended their overseas exploration with their advanced naval technology.
By the early 1600s, the aging Ming dynasty was decaying. Revolts erupted, and Manchu invaders from the north pushed through the Great Wall.
o Geographic origins of theManchu The Manchus ruled a region in the northeast, mnachuria, that had been long been influenced by Chinese civilization. In 1644, victorious Manchu armies seized Beijing and made it their capital.
o Qing dynasty The Manchus set up the Qing dynasty. The Manchus won the support of Chinese scholar-officials because they adopted the Confucian system of government. For each top job, the Qing chose two people, one Manchu, and Manchu troops stationed across the empire ensured loyalty.
Economy under the Qing The Chinese expanded under both Kangxi and Qianlong. New crops form the Americas, such as potatoes and corn, had been introduced into China. These crops boosted farm output, which in turn contributed to a population boom. China's population about doubled in 60 years. The silk, cotton, and porcelain industries expanded. Internal trade grew, as did the demand for Chinese goods from all over the world.
o Lord Macartney The Qing maintained the Ming policy of restricting foreign traders. Still, Europeans kept pressing to expand trade to cities other than Guangzhou. In 1793, Lord Macartney arrived in China at the head of a British diplomatic mission. He brought samples of British-made goods to show the Chinese the advantages of trade with Westerners. The Chinese, who looked on the good as rather crude products, thought they were gifts offered as tribute to the emperor. Further misunderstandings followed. Macartned insisted on an audience with the emperor. The Chinese told Macartney insisted on an audience with the emperor. The Chinese told Macartney he would to perform the traditional kowtow, touching his head to the ground to show respect to the emperor. Macartney refused. He also offended the Chinese by speaking of the natural superiority of the English, The negotiations faltered (became unsure and hesitant (to begin to fail). In the 1800s, China would learnt that its policy of ignoring Westerners and their technology would have undesired consequences.
o Emperor Qianlong Kangxi was an able administrator and military leader. He extended Chinese power into Central Asia and promoted Chinese culture. Kangxi's grandson Qianlong had an equally successful reign from 1736 t 1796. He expanded China's borders to rule the largest area in the nation's history. Qianlong retired after 60 years because he did not want to rule longer than his grandfather had.
Maintained order through a well-organized bureaucracy. Supervised building of roads and harbors to benefit trade. Rule was effective but harsh. A brutal secret police force reported on corruption, crime, and ideas that opposed those of government (dissent). After Asoka's death, Maurya power declined. Unity of Maury empire was shattered as rival princes again battled for power across Gangetic Plain. India was rarely remained united for long.
Mauryan Empire dates (probably I.D.)- From 321 B.C. to 185 B.C.
Chandragupta Maurya- Forged first Indian empire (Maurya Empire). First gained power in Ganges valley. Then, conquered northern India. Then pushed south, adding much of the Deccan.
Asoka- Most honored Maurya emperor was Chandragupta's grandson, Asoka. Asoka fought a long, bloody war to conquer the Deccan region of Kalinga. Horrified at slaughter, he turned his back on further conquests. He converted to Buddhism, rejected violence, and resolved to rule by moral example. He sent missionaries, or people sent on a religious mission, to spread Buddhism throughout Asia.
Asoka Pillars- Asoka had stone pillars set up across India, offering moral advice and promising a just government. Asoka's rule brought peace and properity and helped unite the diverse peoples within his empire. Tried to help everyone (planted mango groves and made dugs and shelters vertical along the roads)
• Golden Age of the Guptas - significant achievements?
Schools taught more than just religion and philosophy like the subjects I take now. Advances in mathematics had a wide impact on rest of world. Mathematics also originated the concept of zero and developed decimal system based on 10 digits. Physicians used herbs and other medicines to treat illness. Surgeons were skilled ins setting bones and in simple surgery to repair injuries. Doctors also began vaccinating. Many fine writers added to right heritage of Indian literature.
Industrial Revolution has transformed the west.
o Definition dominant of one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region.
o Motives/advantages
• Industrial Revolution created needs and desires that encouraged overseas expansion. Manufactures wanted access to natural resources such as rubber, petroleum, manganese for steel, and palm oil for machinery. Wanted new markets of consumers to who they could sell heir factor goods. Bankers wanted to invest profits. Colonies offered a valuable outlet for Europe's growing population.
• Steam-powered merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases around the world to take on coal and supplies. Industrial powers seized islands or harbors to satisfy these needs. Western leaders claimed that colonies were needed for national security. They also felt that ruling a global empire increased a nation's security. They also felt that ruling a global empire increased a nation's prestige around the world.
• Many westerners felt a genuine concern for their "little brothers" beyond the seas. Missionaries, doctors, and colonial officials believed they had a duty to spread what they saw as the blessings of Western civilization, including its medicine, law, and Christian religion.
• They applied Darwin's ideas about natural selection and survival of the fittest to human societies. European racism they argued, were superior to all others, and imperial domination of weaker races were simply nature's way of improving the human species.
• While European nations had grown stronger in the 1800s, several older civilizations were in decline, especially the Ottoman Middle East, Mughal India, and Qing China.
• European powers had advantages of strong economies, well-organized governments, and powerful armies and navies. Superior technology, including riverboats and the telegraph, as well as improved medical knowledge also played a role. Quinine and other new medicines helped Europeans survive deadly tropical diseases. Advances such as Maxim machine guns, and steam-driven warships were very strong arguments in persuading Africans and Asians to accept Western control.
• By the mid-1700s, the Mughal empire was collapsing from a lack of strong rulers. Britain then turned its commercial interests in the region into political ones. In the early 1600s, the British East India Company won trading rights on the fringe of the Mughal empire. As Mughal power declined, the company's influence grew. By the mid-1800s, it controlled three fifths of India.
The British were able to conquer India by exploiting its diversity. Even when Mughal empire was at its height, India was home to many people and cultures. As Mughal power crumbled, India became fragmented. Indians with different traditions and dozens of different languages were not able to unite against the newcomers. The British took advantage of Indian divisions by encouraging competition and disunity among rival princes. Where diplomacy or intrigue did not work, the British used their superior weapons to overpower local rulers.
The East India Company's main goal in India was to make money and leading officials often grew rich. By the early 1800s, British officials introduced Western education and legal procedures. MIssionaried tried to convert Indians to Christianity, which they felt was superior to Indian religions. The British also pressed for social change. They worked to end slavery and the caste system and to improve the position of women within the family. One law banned sat, a Hindu custom practiced mainly by the upper classes. It called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire.
• In the 1850s, the East India company made several unpopular moves. First, it required sepoys or Indian soldiers in its service, to serve anywhere, either in India or overseas. For high-caste Hindus, however, overseas travel was an offense against their religion.
• Second, the east India Company passed a law that allowed Hindu widows to remarry. Hindus viewed both moves as a Christian conspiracy to undermine their beliefs.
• Then, in 1857, the British issued new rifles to the sepoys. Troops were told to bite off the tips of cartridges before loading them into the rifles. The cartridges, however, were greased with animal fat- either from cows, which Hindus considered sacred, or from pigs, which were forbidden to Muslims. When the troops refused the order to "load rifles", they were imprisoned.
• Angry sepoys rose up against their British officers. The Sepoy Rebellion swept across northern and central India. Several sepoy regiments marched off to Delhi, the old Mughal capital. There, they hailed the last Mughal ruler as their leader. In some places, the spoys brutally massacred British men, women, and children.
• But the British soon rallied and crushed the revolt. They then took terrible revenge for their earlier losses, torching villages, and slaughtering thousands of unarmed Indians.
• The Sepoy rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hatred, and mistrust on both dies. In 1858, Parliament ended the rule of the East India Company and put India directly under the British crown. It sent more troops to India, taxings Indians to pay the cost of these occupying forces. While ti slowed the "reforms" that had angered Hindus and Muslims, it continued to develop Indian for Britain's own economic benefit.
Viceroy One who governed in India in the name of the British monarch. A British viceroy in India governed in the name of the queen, and British officials held the top positions in the civil service and army.
Benefits of British Rule- brought some degree of peace and order to the countryside. The British revised the legal system to promote justice for Indians regardless of class or caste. Railroads helped Indians move around the country, while the telegraph and postal system improved communication. Greater contact helped bridge regional differences and develop ad sense of national unity. The upper classes, especially, benefitted from some British policies. They sent their sons to British schools, where they were trained for posts in the civil service and military. India landowners and princes, who still ruled their own territories, grew rich from exporting cash crops.
Drawbacks (disadvantages) of British Rule- Indians didn't have top jobs. British trade with India was an unequal partnership, favoring the British. The British flodded India with inexpensive, machine-made textiles, ruining India's once-prosperous hand-weaving industry. Britain encouraged nomadic herders to settle into farming and pushed farmers to grow cash crops (crops grow to sell and not for person consumption), such as cotton and jute, that could be sold on the world market. Clearing new farmlands led to massive deforestation, or cutting of trees. Better healthcare and numbers, however, put a strain on the food supply, especially as farmland was turned over to growing cash crops instead of food. In the late 1800s, terrible famines swept India.
• By the late 1700s, two developments were underway that would transform China's relations with the Western world. First, China entered a period of decline. Second, the Industrial Revolution created a need for expanded markets for European goods. At the same time, it gave the West superior military power.
• During the late 1700s, British merchants began making huge profits by trading opium grown in India for Chinese ea, which was popular in Britain. Soon, many Chinese had become addicted to the drug. Silver flowed out of China in payment for the drug. Silver flowed out of China in payment for the drug, disrupting the economy.
• The Chinese government outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers. They called on Britain to stop the trade. The British refused, insisting on the right of free trade.
• In 1839, Chinese warships clashed with British merchants, triggering the Opium War.
• With outdated weapons and fighting methods, the Chinese were easily defeated. In 1842, Britain made China accept the Treaty of Nanjing. Britain received a huge indemnity, or payment for losses in the war. The British also gained the island of Hong Kong. China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality, the right to live under their own jaws and be tried in their own courts. They treaty was the first of series of "unequal treaties" that forced China to make concessions to Western powers. A second war, lasting from 1856 to 1858, ended with France, Russia, and the United States pressuring China to sign treaties demanded in an agreement (stipulating) the opening of more ports to foreign trade and letting Christian missionaries preach in China.
In the 1860s, reformers launched the "self-strenghtning movement". They imported Western technology setting up factories to make modern weapons. They developed shipyards, railroads, mining, and light industry. The Chinese translated Western works on science, government , and the economy. The movement made limited progress because the government did not rally behind it.
Hundred Days of Reform- Defeated by Japan and humiliated by Westerners, Chinese reformers blamed conservatives official for not modernizing China. They urged conservative leaders to stop looking back at China's past and to modernize as Japan had. In 1898, a young emperor, Guang Xu, launched the Hundred days of reform. New laws set out to modernize the civil service exams, streamline government, and encourage new industries. Reforms affected schools, the military, and the bureaucracy. Conservatives soon rallied against the reform effort. The emperor was imprisoners, and the aging empress Ci Xi reasserted control. Reformers fled for their lives.
Birth of a Republic- - Nationalism spread. Reformers wanted to strengthen China's government. By the end 1900s, they had introduced a constitutional monarchy. Some reformers called for a republic. In early 1900s, Sun Yixian organized Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China on "Three Principles of the People." The first principle was nationalism, or freeing China from foreign dominant. The second was democracy, or representative government. The third was livelihood, or economic security for all Chinese. After Ci Xi died, China was in chaos. Uprising were there and the Qing dynasty fell. The republic had many problems with Sun Yixian as president and was almost constantly at war with itself or foreign invaders.
• Anger grew against Christian missionaries who threatened traditional Chinese Confucianism. The presence of foreign troops was another source of discontent. Protected by extraterritoriality, foreigners ignored Chinese laws and lived in their own communities.
• Anti-foreign feeling finally exploded in the Boxer Uprising. In 1899, a group of Chinese had formed a secret society, the Righteous Harmonious Fists. Westerners watching them train in the martial arts dubbed them Boxers. Their goal was to drive out the "foreign devils" who were polluting the land with their un-Chinese ways, strange buildings, machines, and telegraph lines. In the 1900, the Boxers attacked foreigners across China.

• In response, the Western powers and Japan organized a multinational force. This force crushed the Boxers and rescued foreigners besieged in Beijing.
• China once again had to make concessions (reluctant allowance) to foreigners. The defeat, however, forced even China conservatives to support Westernization. In a rush of reforms, China admitted women to schools and stressed science and mathematics in place of Confucian though. More students were sent abroad to study. China also expanded economically. Mining, shipping, railroads, banking, and exports of cash crops grew. Small-scale Chinese industry developed with the help of foreign capital. A Chinese business class emerged, and a new urban working class began to press for rights.
• Key figures in the period: Guang Xu, Sun Yat-sen (Yixian)
Guang Xu: In 1898, a young emperor, Guang Xu, launched the Hundred days of reform.
Sun Yat-sen (Yixian): . In early 1900s, Sun Yixian organized Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China on "Three Principles of the People." The first principle was nationalism, or freeing China from foreign dominant. The second was democracy, or representative government. The third was livelihood, or economic security for all Chinese. After Ci Xi died, China was in chaos. Uprising were there and the Qing dynasty fell. The republic had many problems with Sun Yixian as president and was almost constantly at war with itself or foreign invaders.
• Sino-Japanese War: The Western powers and nearby Japan moved rapidly ahead. Japan began to modernize after 1868. It then joined the Western imperialists in the competition for a global empire. In 1894, Japanese pressure on China led to the Sino-Japanese War. It ended in disaster for China, with Japan gaining the island of Taiwan.