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The fertile parts of a flower are the:

carpels and stamens

Collectively, the petals form the:


The perianth consists of all the ______ of a flower.

sepals and petals

Microsporangia are located in the:


The gynoecium consists of all the ______ of a flower.


n flowers with sepals, petals, and stamens attached below the ovary, the ovary is said to be


A perfect flower contains:

carpels and stamens

Angiosperms first appear in the fossil record in the ______ period.


Ray flowers and disk flowers are characteristic of the


The most important flower-visiting animals in angiosperm evolution are:


The fruit characteristic of the pea family is a(n


What is the apparent function of most secondary plant products?

Restricting the palatability of the plant to herbivores

Most of the fruits we eat come from the Family:


Most of the herbs we cook with come from the family


Aloe is a:


When the zygote first divides, the two daughter cells are the ______ cell and the ______ cell.

apical; basal

The procambium is the precursor of the:

xylem and phloem.

Where does the shoot apical meristem arise in eudicot and magnoliid embryos?

Between the two cotyledons

The stemlike axis above the cotyledon(s) is the:


he three tissue systems of vascular plants are:

the dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems.

From which primary meristem does sclerenchyma develop?

Ground meristem

In a eudicot stem, ______ is the ground tissue external to the system of vascular strands and ______ is the ground tissue internal to these strands.

cortex; pith

______ are types of tracheary elements.

Vessel elements and tracheids

An example of programmed cell death is the differentiation of:

tracheary elements.

In vascular plants, food is conducted through:

sieve cells and sieve-tube elements only.

Stomata are the ______ between ______.

pores; guard cells

When a seed germinates, the __________ is the first structure to emerge


The two primary functions of roots are:

anchorage and absorption.

n gymnosperms, magnoliids, and eudicots, the primary root is called the:


Which of the following statements about the rootcap is FALSE?

ts sloughed cells are not replaced.

The sequence of regions in a growing root, beginning immediately behind the rootcap, is:

cell division, elongation, maturation.

Root hairs are produced in the:

region of maturation.

The rhizosphere is the layer of:

soil bound to the root

Substances moving through the root cortex:

ollow both symplastic and apoplastic pathways.

The presence of Casparian strips forces substances entering and leaving the vascular cylinder to pass through the protoplasts of ______ cells.


At the center of most eudicot roots is:


The protoxylem poles are located next to the:


Primary phloem is located between the:

xylem ridges

Unlike eudicot roots, the roots of some monocots:

have a pith.

The vascular cambium is initiated by cells:

between the primary xylem and primary phloem.

In roots, the vascular cambium arises from the:

procambium and pericycle only.

The principal functions of the stem are:

conduction and support.

Anticlinal divisions are different from periclinal divisions in that anticlinal divisions:

are perpendicular to the surface

An intercalary meristem is located:

in an internode.

Extensions of vascular tissues into the leaves from the stem are called:

leaf traces.

A leaf trace extends between the leaf and a:

stem bundle

A plant with helical phyllotaxy has:

one leaf per node, arranged spirally.

In magnoliids and eudicots, leaves generally consist of a ______ and a ______.

blade; petiole

A sessile leaf, by definition, lacks a __


Unlike C3 grasses, C4 grasses have leaves

with mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells in two concentric layers.

Which of the following statements about secondary growth is FALSE?

Most monocots exhibit considerable secondary growth

Cambial initials produce ______ cells toward the outside and ______ cells toward the inside.

phloem; xylem

As the vascular cambium continues to divide, the cambial cells:

are displaced outward.

Which of the following is found in the inner bark but not the outer bark?


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